Source of the Nile PBEM


1.0 Introduction
2.0 The Object of Play
3.0 Components
4.0 Set-Up for Play
5.0 Outfitting Your Expedition
6.0 Filling Out the Player Aid Sheet
7.0 Victory Conditions
8.0 Sequence of Play

9.0 Movement
10.0 Mapping
11.0 Disaster
12.0 Lost
13.0 Interaction with Natives
14.0 Native Negotiation and Trade
15.0 Consequences of Defeat
16.0 Results of Victory
17.0 Cache

18.0 Hunting
19.0 Sickness
20.0 Bonus Discoveries
21.0 Return to Europe
22.0 Publishing
23.0 Special Discoveries
24.0 Journalistic Discoveries
25.0 Longest Rivers and Epic Journeys
26.0 Outfitting New Expeditions

1.0 INTRODUCTION   [Back to Top]

By the nineteenth century, European culture had emerged from
centuries of self preoccupation into its grand epoch. The abilities and
ambitions of Western civilization were directed outward toward the rest of the
world. Among the challenges accepted was the exploration of Africa and the
search for the sources of her rivers.

Africa had long been protected behind an impenetrable wall of deserts, jungles,
high plateaus and exposed coasts. Only grudgingly did she give up bit by bit her
territory to the determined incursions of the European explorers. These intrepid
voyagers whether inspired by the spirit of adventure, scientific inquiry,
personal acclaim or just the desire to tap the untold resources hidden within,
began their final and eventually successful assault along the continent's
natural highways and most accessible routes, her rivers.

These rivers meant much more than just a path into the interior. A navigable
river represented the least expensive means by which Africa's new lands could be
settled, her resources developed and her natives civilized. An important
discovery would have little value if there were no economical way by which it
could he brought out. The news of rivers of great length and volume were
accorded great importance not only for their physical impressiveness but for the
great amount of territory it opened up to exploitation. The recounting of the
exploration of Africa can be told in the exploration of her rivers, the Niger,
the Congo, the Zambezi and the greatest of all, the Nile.

The source of the river Nile was a mystery as old as civilization. To the
ancient Egyptians, the Nile was an object of worship, sustaining their way of
life. Surely, through the centuries, nameless thousands must have set out to
find the mystic land from which her waters flowed.

That the journey was dangerous was clearly attested to by the remains of the
countless failures littering the way. Midway through the Sudan, the Nile forks
at Khartoum. The east branch, the Blue Nile, journeys to Belfodiyo where it
plunges from the Ethiopian plateau in a series of cataracts through gorges so
rugged that they hadn't been completely explored by 1950. The west branch, the
White Nile, can be followed more easily until it becomes lost in the sprawling
swampland called the Sudd. These were the natural limits of the search for the
source for the Nile. If any exceptionally hardy and daring explorer did push his
way beyond the marshes or the mountains, and we know today that some must have
done so, the discoveries they made were dismissed as fantasy.

The source of the Nile was not the only point of geographical interest. The
discoverer of the source of any of the great rivers which emptied at the African
coast was greeted with acclaim. In fact, had the Congo or Niger proved to be a
longer river than the Nile, the more enduring fame might have gone to its
explorers. Other outstanding features such as great lakes, major waterfalls, and
majestic mountain peaks were milestones in the mapping of Africa.

There were those of less noble motive who came to search for gold, diamonds,
ivory and furs. Others sought land, water and timber for farms and homes, or
iron and coal for industry. To the zoologist and botanist, Africa was a paradise
of exotic wildlife and vegetation. To the doctor and missionary the plight of
the natives physically and spiritually was a matter of great concern. To the
ethnologist/anthropologist, the key to man's evolution and his cultural progress
might be hidden here. To the journalist, the natives were victims of the brutal
and barbarous slave trade.

The map of Africa which had been almost blank in 1814 was filled in: its rivers
traced; its mountains, jungles, deserts and lakes measured and charted by 1914.
The resources of land, water, minerals and game which had been only dimly
perceived in the past were thrown open for use by the world. Great light was
shod on other mysteries of science by clues previously hidden among African
flora and fauna. The people of Africa, who had largely lived in stone-age
isolation, were brought irrevocably into the world community. All of these
achievements, the consequences of which we still can't foresee, grew primarily
out of the search for the source of the Nile.

2.0 THE OBJECT OF PLAY   [Back to Top]

2.1 SOURCE OF THE NILE is designed to be an educational adventure in which the
players compete primarily with the environment and only incidentally with each
other. Luck tends to be a major element of the game but can be overcome by
careful play. Because the game situation is forever changing, there is no single
best strategy. However, players who plan carefully and are prepared for
emergencies will do best.

2.2 A player takes the role of a newspaper publisher or scientific society who
sponsors an explorer to enter Africa and discover new lands and to complete the
objectives of his specialty. In the course of play, each player moves a token
representing his explorer and expedition from a port into the unexplored
interior. For each unexplored hex that the explorer enters, its terrain, native
tribes and special discoveries are determined semi-randomly with allowance made
for previous discoveries. When his explorer publishes these discoveries, the
player receives a certain number of victory points in accordance with their
value. The player with the most victory points at the end of play is the winner.

2.3 There are two games contained in the SOURCE OF THE NILE, each with its own
emphasis. Game I is more structured with a definite goal. It is designed to be
played in a set period of time, approximately 2 to 4 hours.

Game II is more open ended with the emphasis on adventure. There is no specific
end of game but can continue until all of Africa is completely explored. As
there are almost 500 blank hexes to be explored, the game is not usually played
to the bitter end at one sitting. Instead, a reasonable time limit is set at the
end of which the player with the most victory points is the winner. The complete
exploration of Africa can be the result of several games, each starting where
the last left off.

3.0 Components   [Back to Top]

3.1 Inventory

3.11 One three panel mapboard

3.12 One sheet of die-cut cardboard counters

3.13 One deck of l08 Event cards

3.14 Player Aid pad

3.15 Game box and lid

3.16 Rules folder

3.17 Four dice

3.18 Three Crayons

3.2 Mapboard

SOURCE OF THE NILE is played on a mapboard showing the southern two
thirds of Africa. The periphery of the continent consists of land already
explored and published Ca. 1820. Its terrain is filled in. The center is blank
comprising territory yet to be discovered. An hexagonal grid is superimposed on
the map to regulate movement and to delimit territory as it is discovered. From
henceforth, all blank hexes will also be referred to as unexplored boxes. All
hexes with terrain filled in but not yet published will be referred to as
explored hexes. All hexes with terrain filled in and published will be referred
to as published hexes. All non-published hexes previously visited by an explorer
are known to him and are referred to as known hexes. All hexes never visited by
the explorer are unknown to him and are referred to as unknown hexes. Also
included are various other playing aids and tables whose uses will be explained
in the appropriate rules sections.

The mapboard can be marked on with crayons. As the explorers move into Africa,
they will be able to mark on the map the types of terrain they discover. When
the game is over, the board can be erased with a soft cloth.

Not marked on the mapboard but important to play is an area of Africa known as
Cape Colony. It comprises all hexes on or south of the river Orange to (and
including) the line of hexes running from Durhan to the source of the Orange. An
explorer in Cape Colony has certain advantages which will be described later in
the rules.

Special note on Zanzibar - Although Zanzibar is on an island, it is not
necessary for an expedition starting there to buy canoes in order to reach the
mainland of Africa. Treat movement from Zanzibar to either of the adjacent hex
indicated by arrows as normal overland movement through known terrain.

3.3 Counters 3.31 Each player uses a set of counters distinguished by its own
color. Each set of counters contains: one explorer eight caches thirty blank

3.32 Also included in the counter sheet are eight discovery counters. Four are
labelled; Dr. Livingston, Lost City. Native Kingdom, and King Solomon Mine. The
other tour are blank.

3.33 There are 50 native counters individually numbered from I to 50.

3.4 Event Cards Printed on every one of the 108 Event cards are the disasters
which can befall the expeditions, the information needed to map blank hexes, and
possible bonuses an explorer can receive.

3.5 Player Aid Pad Players construct and maintain an up-to-date record of their
expeditions here. Places are provided to maintain records of caches and victory
points. Various charts are included to aid in setting up the expedition.

3.6 The four dice are used to determine the results for various Tables in the
game. They are not used to determine movement.


4.0 SET-UP FOR PLAY   [Back to Top]

4.1 Lay out the mapboard between the players.

4.2 Shuffle the Event deck and place it in a convenient location by the
mapboard. Keep a space a for discards. The Event deck can never be exhausted. If
all of the cards are discarded, reshuffle and start new deck.

4.3 Provide each player with one sheet from the Player Aid Pad.

4.4 One player takes the eight discovery counters and mixes them face down. He
then distributes them one at a time to each player as far as they will go. Each
player, in turn, places one counter on the mapboard until all are placed within
the following restrictions:

4.41 the counter must be placed in a blank hex at least five hexes from a
published hex; and

4.42 it must be at least three hexes from a previously placed discovery counter.

4.5 All explorers start the game off the board in Furope. Each player secretly
marks in the margin of his Player Aid Sheet the port from which he wishes his
explorer to begin his expedition.

4.6 Each player selects one specialty for his explorer. He makes his selection
from eight available: 1. Botanist 2. Doctor 3. Ethnologist/Anthropologist (one
who studies cultures/who studies the development of mankind) 4. Explorer 5.
Geologist 6. Journalist 7. Missionary 8. Zoologist Different explorers may have
the same specialty.

4.61 These specialties will not affect movement or combat with natives.
Specialties may lessen effect of disaster and provide an explorer with
particular bonus discoveries. Look at the Event deck for a better idea of the
advantages of specalties.

4.62 Players roll four dice apiece. High man then becomes the first to play and
play continues clockwise around the board. In case of a tie, continue rolling
until tie is broken.


5.1 At the start of the game, each player
receives $l,000 in donations to outfit his expedition. For any subsequent
expedition that the player may wish to outfit, he will have to collect donations
in Europe, the amount of which will depend greatly upon the success of the
previous expedition (see 24.0).

5.2 All players reveal and place their explorers at their selected port. The
explorer counter represents the explorer and any expedition with him on the
board. These two terms are interchangeable as an explorer by himself is
considered an expedition of one and an expedition cannot possibly exist without
an explorer.

5.3 All players then purchase who and what they think they will need for their
expedition. A Rates of Exchange chart is printed on the Player Aid Sheet to
cover the costs. A player can spend any amount up to $1,000 in the outfit but
any money not spent is lost.

5.4 To be able to intelligently outfit his expedition, the player will need to
know the value and function of the people and items available for purchase.

5.41 People For Hire

5.411 Bearer - He has three specific duties:

5.4111 To carry anything that needs to be carried up to 0 items or its
equivalent in weight;

5.4112 To paddle canoes;

5.4113 To lead up to three pack animals.

5.4114 A bearer can perform only one duty at a time. He can either carry, or
paddle, or lead animals. He cannot combine any of the duties.

5.412 Guide - His only duty is to help prevent the expedition from becoming
lost. (see 12.0 Lost)

5.413 Askari - He has two specific duties:

5.4131 To hunt for fresh food;

5.4132 To fight in any battle in which the expedition might become involved.

5.414 Note that each job is mutually exclusive of the others. An askari can
never perform any of the duties of the bearer or the guide. The bearer can not
perform the duties of the askari or guide, and so on.

5.42 Animals

5.421 There are two types of animals available for purchase, camels and horses.
Both animals have many characteristics in common.

5.422 Animals not being ridden (pack mount) can carry greater loads than
bearers, up to 20 items or equivalent in weight. A man weighs an equivalent of 1
items. So a mounted animal (ride mount) can carry only an additional 5 items.

5.423 Expeditions, all of whose members are mounted on animals, move faster than
on foot. Every member of the expedition must be mounted to use this advantageous
movement otherwise it must move by foot.

5.424 Animals cannot travel in canoes.

5.425 A mounted bearer cannot himself carry any thing but can lead other

5.426 A horse can be purchased only at the ports of Durban, Port Elizabeth or
Capetown. A horse cannot enter a hex containing swamp or lake.

5.427 A camel can be purchased only at Khartoum or from friendly desert tribes.
A camel can not enter a hex containing jungle, swamp or lake. A camel may be
able to enter a desert hex without requiring water. (see 5.4444)

5.428 Animals which are not being ridden or led will wander off into the
wilderness never to be seen again.

5.43 Canoe

5.431 A canoe can carry up to 300 items or its equivalent in weight.

5.432 A canoe may only travel along rivers, into or through lakes and swamps,
and along the coast.

5.433 Only bearers may paddle canoes or carry canoes.

5.434 Like mounted expeditions, canoe expeditions move faster than on foot.
Every member of the expedition must be in a canoe to use this advantageous
movement otherwise they must move by foot.

5.44 Items

5.441 Items are different types of provisions needed by the expedition to
maintain itself.

For example, a bearer can Carry up to 10 items in weight. This can be 10
rations, 10 units of water, 10 muskets or any combination thereof not to exceed
10. The weight of non-items that can be carried will always be given in terms of
items. A man being carried in a canoe or by a horse has a weight of 15 items.
Several bearers (not animals) can combine to carry objects too heavy for one to

5.442 Rations - There are two types of food rations available to the expedition:
fresh and non perishable.

5.4421 Fresh food rations can only be acquired by hunting and represent the
native plants and animals collected in the locality occupied by the expedition.
Fresh food rations must be eaten in the same turn they are collected or they
will spoil.

5.4422 Non-perishable rations are preservable foods such as salt meat and
biscuit. These never deteriorate. Non-perishable food rations are the only type
of rations purchased at ports or received from friendly natives.

5.4423 Each man consumes one ration of food each turn or is considered to be

5.4424 Animals generally feed themselves on the natural vegetation and do not
have to be fed but there is one exception. Each turn in which a horse ends its
move in a desert hex, it must be fed four rations or it will die of starvation.

5.4425 Animals may be shot at any time to provide ten rations worth of fresh
food. Horses of course cannot eat this meat.

54426 Food can be used to acquire gifts from friendly natives which in turn can
be used in further trade.

5.443 Gifts

A gift has two functions.

5.4431 It is used to help convince a chief and his tribe to become friendly to
the expedition.

5.4432 It is the unit of barter used to hire native guides, askaris and bearers
or to purchase food, camels and canoes from friendly natives.

5.444 Water

5.4441 Water is never purchased. It is available everywhere except in desert
hexes without a river or oasis.

5.4442 Water is only needed when an expedition is about to enter a desert hex
and is not following a river. Water is needed even if the desert hex is known to
contain an oasis. An expedition is not allowed to enter a desert hex if not
following a river unless it has enough water to satisfy all of the men and
animals being taken into the desert.

5.4443 Water is collected free of charge in any amount from any non-desert hex,
from an oasis, or from a river.

5.4444 Each man consumes three units of water a turn in the desert. A horse
consumes eight units of water a turn in the desert. A camel may consume eight
units ot water per turn or sixteen units of water every second consecutive turn
in the desert.

5.445 Muskets

5.4451 One musket must be provided to each friendly native hired as an askari
and to the explorer if he is to fight and hunt.

5.4452 All askaris hired at a port are assumed to possess muskets and do not
have to be provided with any.

5.4453 Muskets can also be bartered for gifts which in turn can be used to
purchase items or hi natives from friendly tribes.

5.5 Explorer's Abilities

5.51 An explorer can perform the duties of a bearer. He can also hunt and fight
like an askari if armed with a musket. He may not guide.

5.52 If an explorer debases himself by doing menial 'bearer' work, one askari
will desert at the end ofthe each turn until he regains the remaining askaris'
respect. The same turn that the explorer kills a dangerous animal or gains a
victory over an unfriendly native tribe, the desertions will stop.

5.53 Two explorers cannot combine into a joint expedition. It's every man for


6.1 As each player determines the composition of his expedition he will record
the numbers in the appropriate locations on the Expedition Make-up on his Player
Aid Sheet. There are two Expedition Make-ups on a sheet. The one not used for
the current expedition can be used for the next.

6.2 The numbers of bearers, askaris and guides hired are entered in the
appropriate boxes under the # of members column. All entries (including the
explorer) are summed and the total entered in the Total Expedition box.

6.3 Any canoes or animals purchased are entered in the appropriate boxes in the
# of members column. Animals that will be ridden are entered in the Ride Mount
box. Animals that will be led are entered in the Pack Mount box. Ride and pack
mounts can be interchanged at any time.

6.4 The number of each kind of item purchased is entered in the appropriate
boxes in the Portage Cost column.

6.5 The Expedition Make-up section also allows players to keep track of what the
expedition can carry.

6.51 If the expedition is to travel by foot, multiply the number of bearers by
10 and enter the amount in the corresponding box in the Transport Capability
column. This number represents the maximum weight that can be carried by the

6.52 lf the expedition is to travel by canoe, multiply the number of canoes by
300 and enter the amount in the corresponding box in the Transport Capability
column. This number represents the maximum weight that can be carried by all of
the canoes. Also take the Total Expedition value (see 6.2), multiply by 15 and
enter amount in the People (canoe) box in the Portage Cost column. This number
represents the weight of the people being carried by the canoes.

6.53 If the expedition is to ride animals, multiply the number of ride mounts by
5 and enter amount in the corresponding box in the Transport Capability column.
Multiply the number of pack mounts by 20 and enter amount in the corresponding
box in the Transport Capability column. The sum of these two values represents
the maximum weight that the animals can carry. Note that the weight of the
people has already been factored out of the ride mounts' carrying capacity.

6.54 Total the numbers in the Portage Cost column and enter sum in Total box.
This value equals the number of items and its equivalent in weight to be carried
by the expedition. Total the numbers in the Transport column and enter the sum
in the Total box. This value equals the number of items and its equivalent in
weight that the expedition is able to carry.

6.55 The Portage Cost total can never exceed the Transport Capability total. If
this should occur, the expedition must be reconstructed to eliminate the portage

6.6 The Expedition Make-up is set up so that when there is an addition, change
or loss to the expedition, the current number is marked out and the new amount
entered alongside. In this way, a running total can be maintained.

6.7 Additional space have been provided on the sheet to maintain records or
caches hidden, tribes encountered, discoveries made, and victory points

7.0 VICTORY CONDITIONS   [Back to Top]

The first player to have his explorer publish discoveries worth at least 75
victory points is the winner. For a shorter game, players may decide to play for
fewer victory points.

8.0 SEQUENCE OF PLAY   [Back to Top]

8.1 Starting with high man and going clockwise around table, each player takes
his turn. Turns continue until one player meets the victory requirements at
which point the game immediately ends.

8.2 Each players turn is composed of the same sequence of actions which must be
performed in the order presented.

8.3 A player may perform these activities only in his urn. When one player is
taking his turn, no other player can perform any activity.

1. Select an Activity Level for your expedition this turn.

2. Draw one Event Card (if not in port or Cape Colony) for possible disaster.

3. Move your expedition

a. Each time your expedition attempts to enter a hex either not published or not
previously explored by you, check to see if you get lost.

b. For each unexplored hex entered:

1. Draw one Event card to determine terrain.

2. Draw a second Event card to determine the course of a river.

3. Draw a third Event card to determine if a native tribe resides in the hex. If a
tribe is there, check the Native Strength Table for the size of its villages.

c. For each hex entered or (if no move is made) occupied at the end of your move which
contains a native tribe:

1. Trade or continue your move ignoring them, if tribe is already friendly.

2. Immediately select a native policy toward them, if tribe is not friendly.

a. Consult Native Attitude Table to determine result of policy selected.

b. Implement the policy result immediately.

4. Cousult the Hunting Table for results of hunting. Adjust rations and water if
needed. All sick are cared for after hunting using the Recovery Table. All
desertions are made and noted.

5. Draw one Event card for possible bonus received.

8.4 Explorers who wish to enter, remain in, or leave Europe use a different
Sequence of Play as explained in Outfitting New Expeditions (26.0).

9.0 MOVEMENT   [Back to Top]

9.1 General Rules

9.11 How far an explorer and his expedition can move depends upon which of three
activity levels is selected and the mode of travel (mounted, canoe or foot).

9.12 At the start of his turn, a player determines his movement allowance for
that turn by announcing one of the three activity levels available on the
Activity Level Chart found on the mapboard. He cross-indexes his selection with
the expeditions' mode of travel.

For example, an explorer traveling by canoe announces that he is moving
cautiously this turn. His movement allowance is 2 m.p.

9.13 The movement allowance is given in movement points (m.p.). An explorer
expends one or more movement points to enter a hex depending upon the terrain
and whether it has been explored or not as explained in 9.15 to 9.26.

9.14 An explorer may expend none, some or all of themovement points available in
his movement allowance. He may never expend more movement points in a turn than
available in his movement allowance.

9.15 For each published hex or known hex that the explorer enters, he expends 1

9.16 For each unexplored hex or unknown hex that the explorer enters, he expends
2 m.p.

9.17 Explorers can enter half hexes along edges of mapboard.

9.2 Canoe Expeditions

9.21 A canoe expedition which enters or attempts to enter a hex containing
swamps expends 4 m.p. whether published, explored or unexplored. This penalty is
not enforced if the canoes are traveling along the coast.

9.22 A canoe expedition which has 8 or more bearers for each canoe can move up
to its full movement allowance.

9.23 A canoe expedition which can only muster 4 to 7 bearers per canoe loses 1
m.p. from its movement allowance.

9.24 A canoe expedition which can only muster 2 or 3 bearers per canoe loses 2
m.p. from its movement allowance.

9.25 A canoe expedition which can only muster 1 bearer per canoe loses 3 m.p.
from its movement allowance.

9.26 A canoe expedition which cannot muster even one bearer per canoe may only
drift one hex per turn downstream on a river.

9.27 Coming upon a cataract, a canoe expedition must portage around it to
continue on the river.

9.271 A canoe weighs an equivalent of 40 items.

9.272 Each portage trip around a cataract expends 1 m.p.

For example, canoe expedition of 2 canoes, 80 items, and 8 bearers would expend
2 m.p. to portage around a cataract because the bearers can only carry one canoe
and 40 items at a time. If there were 16 bearers, it would only cost 1 m.p.

9.28 If a canoe expedition encounters a particular cataract in an unpublished
hex for the first time while travelling downstream, there is a chance of one or
more canoes going over. Roll one die and subtract three to determine the number
of canoes and occupants which are lost by going over the falls.

9.3 Every time an explorer enters an unpublished hex which he has not previously
entered, the player should place a counter of his color in the hex. This is done
even if other explorers have visited there. Remember the value of the discovery
of a hex goes to the explorer who first publishes it in Europe not the explorer
who first maps it.

9.4 Movement Restrictions

9.41 If an explorer does not have enough movement points to enter a particular
hex, he cannot enter that hex.

9.42 All movement points not used in a turn are lost. Movement points cannot be
accumulated from turn to turn.

9.43 An explorer and his expedition may be prohibited from entering hexes
containing certain types of terrain depending upon the mode of travel. This is
detailed in the Movement Restrictions Chart on the mapboard.

9.44 An explorer who enters an unexplored hex and then discovers when mapping
that he cannot enter must return to the hex he previously occupied or change his
mode of travel (see 9.5) to eliminate the conflict.

9.45 Upon discovering the terrain of an unexplored hex, an explorer always has
the option to voluntarily return to the hex he previously occupied.

9.46 In all cases, when an attempt to enter the hex is followed by a retreat,
the movement points used to enter the hex are expended.

9.5 An explorer may change his mode of travel at any time during his turn.

9.51 When a change in mode of travel is made, the explorer immediately adapts
the movement allowance of the slower of the two modes.

For example, a mounted expedition which is moving recklessly changes to foot.
Its movement allowance is reduced from 6 m.p. to 4 m.p. A foot expedition which
changes to mounted keeps its original movement allowance.

9.52 If, at the time of the mode change, the number of movement points already
expended equals or exceeds the movement allowance of the slower travel mode, the
explorer stops where he is and can move no further in the turn.

9.6 A player may alter the make-up of his expedition at any time. He may
discharge bearers, guides and askaris. He may release animals. He may discard or
cache any and all items and canoes without penalty.

For example, an explorer has lost three of his twenty-four bearers in a canoe
expedition. He has three canoes but is now unable to man each with eight
bearers. Rather than move at a slower rate and lost time portaging around
cataracts, he decides to cache one canoe and proceed with the remaining two. He
also chooses to discharge 3 bearers to keep the portage costs within the
Transport Capability of 600 items. He could have cached 45 items with the canoe
instead of discharging the bearers but felt he could more easily part with the

9.7 Although there seems, in terms of movement, no reason for ever selecting an
activity level other than reckless, the safer the activity selected, the more
likely you will have good hunting and protection against native ambush. The
greater the speed, the bigger the risks.

Special: There is one exception to 9.7. An explorer loses 1 viciory point (v.p.)
for each sick person he discharges.

10.0 MAPPING   [Back to Top]

10.1 Each time an explorer enters an unexplored hex, its terrain, any rivers,
spectacular discoveries and natives must be located and mapped.

10.2 Mapping Terrain

10.21 The terrain of an unexplored hex is always determined first. There are six
types of basic terrain, each of which is represented by a colored symbol (see
Terrain Key on mapboard). These are desert, jungle, lake, swamp, veldt
(grassland) and mountain. Jungle can also be combined with swamp or mountain;
otherwise the basic terrain types are exclusive and cannot be mixed in the same

10.22 It is very likely that the terrain of the hex to be mapped will be the
same as one of the adjacent hexes. Draw the top card on the Event deck and check
the two numbers listed by MAP: Terrain.

10.23 Take the first of the two numbers and consult the directional compass on
the mapboard to determine direction. If the hex adjacent to the hex being mapped
in the direction indicated by the compass is not blank, then the basic terrain
in the hex being mapped will be the same.

10.24 If the adjacent hex is blank, repeat 10.23 with the second number, if
there is just one number, proceed directly to 10.25.

10.25 If the second adjacent hex is blank, then the basic terrain in the hex
being mapped will be the terrain listed after he numbers on the Event card.

10.26 Take a crayon and mark in the terrain symbol in the hex.

10.27 Desert and jungle hexes can never be adjacent to one another, if the
terrain being mapped would cause this to occur, the terrain must change to

10.28 No more than three lake hexes may be adjacent to one another. If mapping
lake terrain would cause a four hex lake to form, ignore the result and repeat
mapping terrain procedure starting at 10.22 until another type of terrain is


10.291 As stated in Movement 9.4, an explorer may retreat from a hex after
discovering its terrain. This must be done immediately before any other
discoveries are made.

10.292 Only mark in half of the terrain symbol to indicate that he hex has only
been partially explored.

10.293 The explorer never gets any credit for partial exploration. He cannot
publish partially explored hexes. He does put a blank counter on the hex to
indicate that the partial discovery will be erased if should die.

10.294 If after another explorer or the same explorer enters the partially
explored hex at a later time, he can complete the exploration, filling in the
rest of the terrain in the hex. The blank marker indicating the partial
exploration is then removed.


10.31 There are some important features of rivers that need to be covered before
getting into the procedure of mapping rivers.

10.311 All water flows from the source of a river. All water flows to the mouth
of a river. Hex 35 north ofKhartoum is considered the mouth of the Nile.

10.312 If the hex being mapped has a river leading into it from an adjacent hex,
it has to be determined whether water is flowing from the river into the hex; or
flowing out of the hex (from as yet in mapped river) into the river.

10.313 If the river in the adjacent hex can be traced by any path to a mouth,
the water is flowing out of the hex being mapped.

10.314 If the river in the adjacent hex can be traced only to a river source,
the water is flowing into the hex being mapped.

10.315 If the river in the adjacent hex can be traced neither to a mouth or
source, its direction will already be detennined as explained in (10.3254).

10.316 When mapped, a river must be drawn from one hexside to another(see
preprinted rivers on mapboard). It stops in the center of the hex only if it is
to begin in that hex. In this case, a blue dot representing a river source is
placed at the end or the river.

10.317 Eventually all rivers must begin and end somewhere. When following a
river upstream, it must eventually end in a source; either a river source or a
lake or a swamp. When following a river downstream, it must eventually connect
to a mouth, or a lake or a swamp. A river cannot end at a hexside.

10.318 A river can only be drawn to those hexsides which border adjacent hexes
containing passable terrain (i.e., the adjacent hex to which it will point must
be able to continue the river). Only swamp, lake, a river connected to the same
hexside, a partially explored or blank hex can continue the river.

10.32 River MappIng Procedure

10.321 Check first if one of the following situations occur. If one does, follow
its instructions and do not proceed further in the mapping of the river.

10.3211 If the hex being mapped contains swamp or lake, there is no need to map
a river in the hex. Swamp and lake can always form part of a river system
although they don't have to. A river can always join a swamp or lake from any
adjacent hex. Water can flow into, through, or out of any number of swamp and/or
lake hexes.

10.3212 If two or more rivers flow out of the hex being mapped, it must be a
lake, swamp, or jungle/swamp hex. Roll one die; 1-3 lake, 4-5 swamp or 6
jungle/swamp. Erase any other basic terrain in the hex. A river cannot be mapped
here because it cannot exit at two mouths.

10.3213 If one or more rivers flow into the hex being mapped and one flows out
of the same hex, all of the rivers are connected.

10.322 When none of the special cases arise, the first step in mapping rivers is
to determine whether situation A or situation B applies.

10.3221 Situation A occurs if there is at least one adjacent hex containing a
river leading to the hex being mapped.

10.3222 Situation B occurs if situation A doesn't apply.

10.323 Draw the top card of the Event deck and consult the appropriate situation
under MAP:River.

10324 If situation A is selected there are three possible results.

10.3241 River Continues - The river continues to one hexside of the hex being
mapped. Check only the first of the two numbers by MAP:Terrain. If the river can
enter the adjacent hex indicated by the number, draw the river to that hexside.
If the river can't enter the adjacent hexside, treat as River Ends (see cases
l0.332 and 10.333 for exceptions).

10.3242 River Ends - The river ends in the hex being mapped if the river is
flowing out of hex. Treat as River Continues if river is flowing into the hex or
if in desert (a river can't end in desert). Draw river to center of hex and mark
with river source dot.

10.3243 River Forks - The river will fork into two branches in the hex being
mapped and each branch will lead to a different hexside.

10.32431 Follow same procedure used in River Continues except that each number
by MAP:Terrain will determine the course of each branch.

10.32432 If one of the two adjacent hexes is impassable or if there is only one
number, the two branchs, simply rejoin into one branch (they have run around
either side of a large island) which points to the adjacent hex.

10.31.433 If both hexes are impassable and the river is flowing out of the hex,
the river ends.

10.32434 If both hexes are impassable and the river is flowing into the hex,
change to River continues, draw a new event card, and repeat 10.3241 until an
adjacent hex to which the river can point is determined.

10.325 If Situation B is selected, there are four possible results.

10.3251 No River - No river is mapped in hex.

10.3252 River Begins - Draw in river source with river leading from source to
the adjacent hex selected by first number. If adjacent hex is impassable, there
is no river in the hex.

10.3253 River Begins Or Extends From Adjacent Swamp Or Lake.

10.32531 If there are no hexes adjacent to the hex being mapped which contain
swamps or lake, treat as River Begins (10.3251).

10.32532 If there is one adjacent hex which contains lake or swamps, a river
exits from that hex into the hex being mapped. Map the river in the same way as
River Continues. (10.3242).

10.32533 If there is more than one swamp or lake adjacent, one must be
determined randomly. Label each hex with a die number, Any excess numbers are
treated as roll again. Roll a die until one hex is selected.

10.3254 River Crosses - Check both numbers by Map:Terrain. If both adjacent
hexes indicated by the numbers are passable, a river will cross the hex from one
hexside to the other.

10.3254 If there is only one number or, if only one adjacent hex is passable,
treat as River Begins.

10.32542 If neither adjacent hex is passable, no river is mapped in the hex.

10.32543 If mapped, the river always flows from the adjacent hex indicated by
the first number to the adjacent hex indicated by the second number. Draw a
little arrow as a reminder of the direction or flow.

10.33 River Restrictions

10.331 A river must always attempt to flow from a source to a mouth. It only
ends at a lake or swamp if unable to reach a mouth.

10.332 A river which is not connected to a river mouth cannot end if here is
still a possibility that it can eventually connect to a river mouth by any route
of passable hexes. If mapping procedure states that the river is to end, it is
ignored and the procedure continued until the river is mapped. This holds true
also if the current end of the river contains swamp or lake and all other
adjacent hexes so the swamp or lake are impassable.

10.333 If one or more rivers flow into the hex being mapped and there is no
adjacent hex with passable terrain (see 10.318), the hex must be lake (even if
it has not fulfilled its drainage basin requirement see 10.335). This is
considered a great salt lake and replaces any other terrain mapped there.

10.334 A river already connected to a mouth can always end unless it hasn't met
its Draining Basin Requirement.

10.335 Drainage Basin Requirement

10.3351 All rivers, lakes, swamps (including jungle/swamp) which can trace a
water route to any one of the nine river mouths is part of the same river system
identified by the mouth.

For example, the Orange and Vaal rivers are part of the same river system as
both flow to the same mouth.

10.3352 There is a certain minimum length which each of the nine river systems
must attain. This is printed at the mouth of each system in white.

10.3353 The drainage basin requires that there be at least as many hexes in a
river system as indicated by its minimum river length.

For example, the minimum river length of the Nile is 35. Already published (pre-
printed) on the mapboard are 13 hexes of the river system (including the two
Sudd Swamps hexes). At least 22 more hexes must be part of the river system
before the river is allowed to end.

10.3354 If the mapping procedure instructs a river to end and that hex is the
only route by which the entire system can continue (i.e., there are no other
tributaries or exits from lake or swamp of that river system), the instructions
must be ignored and the procedure continued until the river is mapped.

10.3355 If there is no passable terrain into which a river system can continue,
it has no choice but to end even if it hasn't fulfilled its drainage basin

10.336 A river system can never be constructed in such a way that the flow of
water can be traced back to itself (water flowing in circle). There are several
ways this could happen. One way this would occur is if a river flowing from the
hex being mapped at one hexside flows back into the hex at another hexside. The
terrain in the hex must be changed to swamp (die roll 1-5) or jungle/swamp (die
roll 6).

10.337 A river connected only to a swamp or lake (not yet connected to a river
source or mouth) is assumed to be flowing into the lake or swamp as long as a
route of passable hexes can be traced from the lake or swamp to a hex from which
it can connect to a river mouth. If it cannot do so, her, the lake or swamp is
considered the rivers source.

10.4 Discovering Natives in Hex

10.41 Draw an Event card and check the Discover Native Section. Only if the
terrain indicated on the card is the same as the hex being mapped, will a native
tribe be discovered residing there. Each time an explorer enters an unpublished
hex, he must check for natives even if it has already been explored and no
natives have been found.

10.42 Count the shortest route in hexes from the closest port to the hex being
mapped. Cross-index this number with a die roll on the Native Strength Table
printed on the map. The result is the size of the villages of the tribe in the
hex (either small, medium, or large).

10.43 place a native tribe marker in the hex. Each player should mark on the
Player Aid Sheet the I.D. number and strength of the tribe.

10.5 Spectacular and Additional Discoveries

10.51 If the hex mapped is desert without river, check under River:B, to see
whether there is oasis. It there is oasis, mark it in hex.

10.52 If the hex mapped contains river, check under River:B for cataract
terrain. If the hex contains the terrain indicated, a cataract is marked on the
river by the hexside where the river flows out of the hex (contrary to where
they are pre-printed on the Congo and Blue Nile).

10.53 If the hex mapped does contain a cataract, draw another Event card and
check Spectacular Discoveries. If there is a waterfall (a particularly high
cataract), mark in its height on the map and in the Discovery column on your
Player Aid Sheet.

10.54 If the hex mapped contains mountains, draw another Event card and check
Spectacular Discoveries. If there is a high mountain, mark in its height on the
map and in the Discovery column on your Player Aid Sheet.

10.55 If the hex contains both mountain and cataract, draw two Event cards one
at a time. Check the first card for high mountains and the second card for

10.56 If the hex contains lake draw an Event card and check Spectacular
Discovery for extra square mileage that the lake contains. Mark this square
mileage in your discovery column. If the lake hex is connected to one or two
other lake hexes, ignore the previous extra square mileage. Use only the extra
square mileage or the last lake hex discovered in that lake.

11.0 DISASTERS   [Back to Top]

11.1 Before any movement is begun, there is a possibility that a disaster may
befall the expedition.

11.2 Draw an Event card. Check the location of the disaster and who or what is
affected. If the expedition does not have the people or items mentioned or does
not occupy the terrain mentioned, ignore the disaster. Otherwise, the disaster
occurs immediately. Note that not all cards are disasters in he normal sense of
the word. Some are rewards and some, like the elephant's graveyard, force the
expedition to move to a certain hex.

11.3 If the disaster or any other catastrophe causes loss of bearer or canoe,
what is carried is also lost (unless specifically stated otherwise). Each bearer
or canoe is considered to carry an equal proportion of each item or person in
the expedition. Special bonus discoveries are never lost unless the player
prefers to lose them. They can be exchanged for items on an equal weight basis.

For example, 85 rations, 47 gifts, 15 muskets and animal pelts weighing 6 items
are being carried by 18 bearers of a foot expedition. Four bearers are lost due
to disaster. Four eigthteenths of each item is lost (rounded down). Along with
the bearers, 18 rations, 10 gifts and 3 muskets disappear. They player may
exchange any or all pelts for an equivalent weight of rations, gifts, and/or

11.4 Some disasters may be prevented or ameliorated by the explorer specialty as
stated in the disaster.

11.4l Even if given immediate opportunity to cure victims affected by disaster,
a doctor may always aid them again during the Hunting Phase.

11.42 If a disaster can be avoided by shooting an animal as stated in the
disaster, each askari and the explorer (if armed) gets one shot unless
specifically stated otherwise. For each shot taken, one die isrolled. An animal
is killed on adie roll of 6. Zoologists kill on a die roll of 5 or 6.

11.43 None of the unfriendly tribes or bands encountered as a result of Disaster
or Bonus (20.0) are permanent. No marker is placed on the board to indicate
their presence. They disappear immediately after the phase is over.

11.44 Since a lake is assumed to cover the entire hex at least, the lake shore
extends to all adjacent land hexes. Because of the extension, lake disasters can
affect adjacent hexes as well as the lake hex itself.

11.45 For each person killed by disaster, roll two dice. Explorer is killed
instead on a roll of twelve. If person named by disaster not in expedition,
explorer is killed on an eleven or twelve two dice roll.

12.0 LOST   [Back to Top]

12.1 Each time an explorer attempts to enter an unpublished hex that he has
never before visited, it must be determined whether he and his expedition become

12.2 An explorer who becomes lost cannot move for the rest of the turn except to
retreat from natives and has one guide desert him as a result of failure.

12.3 Check the terrain of the hex being exited by the expedition in the Terrain
Key on the mapboard. Alongside under the Lost Column is the lost number for that

12.4 Roll one die. If the result is equal or less than the Lost number, the
explorer is lost for the turn.

12.5 An expedition following a river downstream (in the direction the water is
flowing) cannot get lost no matter what the terrain. An expedition following a
river upstream (away from the direction the water is flowing) has a Lost number
of 2 no matter what the terrain.

12.6 Lost Modifications

12.61 If a guide is in the expedition, subtract one from the die roll.

12.62 If the expedition is at cautious activity subtract one from die roll. This
applies even though not stated in the Movement Restrictions Table.

12.63 If the expedition is at reckless activity, add one to the die roll.

12.64 All die roll modifications are cumulative.


13.1 Each time an explorer enters or spends his entire move in a hex which
contains a native tribe or discovers a native tribe, he may have to adopt a
policy with that tribe.

13.2 If the tribe is already friendly to him, the explorer may ignore the tribe
completely continuing on his way or he may trade with them.

13.3 If the tribe is not friendly, the explorer must select one of six policies
listed on the mapboard.

13.31 Certain policies may impose restrictions upon the explorer. These are
explained in the description following the policy.

13.32 The result of the policy is determined by cross-indexing the policy number
and turn's activity level with a two dice roll on the Native Attitude Table
printed on the mapboard. Explanations of the results are provided underneath.
Their instructions must be observed.

13.4 An explorer who is charged or ambushed by natives must resolve the attack
on the appropriate Native Attack Table.

13.41 The result of the attack is determined by cross-hidexing the total number
of healthy askaris (plus explorer if armed) and the tribal size with a two dice
roll. Explanations of results are provided underneath. Their instructions must
be observed.

13.42 Note - Although the Native Policy 2 description fails to state it, an
explorer who selects policy 2 must retreat if the result of attack is H.

13.5 An explorer who retreats as a result of policy 2 does not regain the
movement points used to enter the natives' hex. If he had just mapped the hex,
it is considered a partial exploration with two differences. The course of any
river, cataract and natives discovered and oasis remains. All spectacular
discoveries are lost. The explorer may not publish the hex unless he is able
return and stay. If the hex is fully explored at a later time, new spectacular
discoveries are determined all over again.

13.6 In any interaction with a native tribe, an explorer is dealing with just
one village of an unlimited number of villages of identical size in the hex. As
a result, the strength of the natives is never reduced no matter how often
involved in battle. It is assumed that each battle is fought against a new
village. When a tribe becomes Friendly, all of the villages become friendly.


14.1 An explorer who has selected either policy 3, 5 or 6 and receives a neutral
(N) result on the Native Attitude Table must negotiate with the tribe.

14.2 The explorer determines how many gifts he wishes to present to the chief in
token of his friendship. The fewer the gifts the more likely the chief will be
unhappy with the offering.

14.3 Check the number of gifts given with the sum of two dice rolls on the
Negotiation Table for the result of the offering. An explanation of the results
is found underneath.

14.4 A tribe that becomes friendly is friendly to that explorer only. Other
explorers must interact with the tribe independently to become friendly with
that tribe (see 13.0). Once a tribe is friendly to an explorer it remains
friendly to him for as long as he remains alive.

14.5 An explorer may give every item he has to guarantee a successful
negotiation. He does not include people, personal muskets, or animals. He must
give the chief everything else he has. If he has nothing to give, he
automatically has a successful negotiation.

14.6 If the tribe is friendly, mark the fact on the Player Aid Sheet. The
explorer may trade with a friendly tribe once each turn he occupies their hex.
An explorer does not expend movement points in an interaction with natives.

14.7 A Native Trade Table is presented on the Player Aid Sheet to provide the
rates of exchange.

14.8 Gifts must be part of all trades. To obtain additional gifts for trade, an
explorer may first trade food or muskets for gifts.

14.81 An explorer may trade for any number of items in the same turn.

14.82 An explorer may trade for any one type of item only once per tribe per

14.83 Each time an explorer trades with a friendly tribe, a jealous witch doctor
attempts to poison him, The explorer dies on a die roll of one.

14.84 Camels can be gotten from a desert tribe only if a route of desert hexes
can be traced from the desert hex occupied to Khartoum.

14.9 There is a limit in trade between each tribe and explorer.

14.91 A small tribe can never accept more than 35 gifts in trade from the same

14.92 A medium tribe can never accept more than 50 gifts in trade from the same

14.93 A large tribe can never accept more than 65 gifts in trade from the same

14.94 Record of gifts traded to each tribe should be maintained on the Player
Aid Sheet.

14.95 Once a tribe has received its maximum allotment of gifts from the same
explorer it can no longer trade with him. The chief and natives no longer value
the gifts that explorer is offering.


15.1 If the result of native attack is D (defeated), the explorer has been
defeated by the Native tribe. He may or may not be able to escape with part or
all of his expedition.

15.2 The Consequences of Defeat Table determines the result of the defeat.

15.21 Certain results allow the explorer to escape with one or more members. He
may choose which members will escape with him.

15.22 A member is any one person, animal or canoe.

15.23 If the member is a bearer on foot expedition or canoe on a canoe
expedition, the items carried are included. See 11.3 to determine what is

15.3 An explorer who is captured may attempt to escape at the end of each turn
starting with the first turn after capture.

1531 The escape attempts continue until the explorer escapes, dies or is

15.32 Use the Consequences of Defeat table to resolve escape attempts. In this
use, the term member is changed to bearer only (without load). The bearers are
natives the explorer has convinced to help him.

16.0 RESULTS OF VICTORY   [Back to Top]

16.1 If the result of Native Attack is W (Win or Victory), the explorer has
defeated the native village. Some askaris may have been killed in the fighting
and the explorer may have captured prisoners and discovered the location of the

16.2 The number of askaris killed is determined on Table A of the Results of
Victory Table.

16.3 In the unusual case that the loss exceeds the number of askaris in the
expedition, the victory changes immediately to defeat. Proceed immediately to
Consequences of Defeat (see 5.6)

16.4 If after extracting losses, the explorer still has one or more askaris,
proceed to Table B to determine whether natives are captured and their village

16.41 Captured natives are either released or used as bearers. Missionaries,
doctors and ethnologists must release all prisoners.

16.42 An explorer who discovers the native village has two options.

16.421 Keep the prisoners for bearers and/or loot the village. Missionaries,
doctors and ethnologists cannot loot villages.

16.422 Release the prisoners and don't loot. The explorer receives 1 v.p. for
selecting this option upon return to Europe. Keep record of this on the Player
Aid Sheet.


16.431 The explorer uses the Looting Table (16.433 once for each looting die
roll he is awarded. The Looting Table determines what the explorer finds while

16.432 Roll one die if small tribe, two dice if medium tribe or three dice if
large tribe. Double the sum. The product is the number of looting die rolls
available to the explorer.

16.433 Looting Table

Die Roll 1-4 find 1 to 4 rations of food 5 find 1 gift 6 find a camel (if in
desert) or canoe (if by river system)

17.0 CACHE   [Back to Top]

17.1 At any time, an explorer may cache (bury or hide) any items he no longer
wishes to keep with his expedition.

17.2 Animals and people may not be cached.

17.3 Record of items cached are kept in the Player Aid Sheet in a numbered box.
A cache marker of the saute number is placed in the hex to mark its location.

17.4 Muskets and bonus items can also be cached. No space has been provided for
them on the Player Aid Sheet so they must be handwritten.

17.5 An unlimited number of caches can be constructed by an explorer. In the
unlikely event that more than eight of an explorer's caches are simultaneously
on the mapboard, extra counters and entries will have to be constructed by the
player himself.

17.6 When the explorer returns to one of his caches to regain his stores, there
is a chance that he has lost its location or it has been destroyed. On a die
roll of one, the cache has disappeared. For all other results the cache has been

17.7 Caches are permanent. A cache is only removed by the process of reclaiming

17.8 Explorers can attempt to find other explorers' caches but only if the cache
is in a published hex. They must roll a die, also, to see if cache has

18.0 HUNTING   [Back to Top]

18.1 Each person in the expedition will consume one ration of food per turn. The
explorer may substitute fresh rations for non-perishable rations.

18.2 Fresh rations not consumed in the turn obtained are lost. They cannot be
preserved and added to the ration supply.

18.3 Consult the Hunting Table for the number of fresh rations collected in the

18.31 The explorer, if armed, is included with the askaris.

18.32 If the hex occupied has two types of terrain, use the most advantageous.

18.33 A change must be noted on the Hunting Table. Activity level 1 and 2 is the
same as cautious activity. Activity level 4 is the same as reckless activity.

18.4 Those people in the expedition not fed by fresh rations must be fed with
non-perishable rations. Anyone not fed will desert the expedition due to

18.5 Animals can be shot to provide 1 rations of fresh food each.

18.6 If the explorer is starving, he becomes sick instead.

18.7 An explorer by himself can hunt without a musket but with a disadvantageous
modification of 2 to the die roll.

18.8 An expedition will never have to consume food if in Cape Colony or in the
hex with a friendly tribe. Food is provided for them in these places.

19.0 SICKNESS   [Back to Top]

19.1 After hunting is completed, sick members of the expedition are cared for.

19.2 For each sick person, consult the Recovery Table to determine if he
recovers. A doctor, who himself is not sick, subtracts one from each die made.

19.3 Sick people cannot walk and must be carried. As stated previously, each
person weighs 15 items. Sick people cannot perform any of their duties.

19.4 Sick people can be discharged but at a loss of 1 v.p. for each discharge.

19.5 Any people or animals in the desert without water will desert (like
starvation). The explorer without water dies.

19.6 Assume there is a doctor in every hex in cape colony and in every port.

20.0 BONUS DISCOVERIES   [Back to Top]

20.1 At the end of his turn, an explorer has the opportunity to make special
discoveries based upon his specialty.

20.2 A bonus discovery can only be made if the explorer occupies a hex which has
been mapped that turn or is with a native tribe he has never encountered in a
previous turn

20.3 Draw an Event card and check the BONUS by the explorer's specialty. All of
the specialties have been abbreviated B - Botanist G - Geologist D - Doctor J -
Journalist E - Ethnologist/ anthropologist M - Missionary Ex - Explorer Z -

20.4 IF all conditions listed in the bonus are met, the bonus is awarded. The
explorer receives whatever benefits (if any) are included.

20.5 If there are no victory point awards mentioned in the bonus, the explorer
automatic receives a number of victory points equal to the roll of one die.

20.6 A record of the bonus discoveries is maintained in the Player Aid Sheet.

20.7 Unusual Bonuses

20.71 Each tusk collected must be returned to Europe to gain its victory point
value. Each tusk weighs 7 items.

20.72 Each animal or plant must be brought to Europe to be published. Each
weighs 2 items. The smaller specimens are brought back alive. The larger
specimens art brought back as pelts or as seed.

20.73 These bonus discoveries are never lost due to disaster unless there are
not enough bearers or canoes left to carry them. A player may voluntarily choose
to substitute any of these discoveries for the items lost with the carrier.

20.74 The same animal, plant, or tribal name may never be published twice. Once
published, any more discoveries of the same animal, plant or tribe name is

20.75 If there are no muskets in the expedition, no animal bonus may be

21.0 RETURN TO EUROPE   [Back to Top]

21.1 It will most likely require several expeditions before a player will be
able to accumulate enough published victory points to win. Players from time to
time will have to return their explorer to Europe to publish discoveries made
while in Africa and to gather donations to outfit new expeditions.

11.2 A player may retire his explorer at any time for any reason (e.g. the
explorer is sitting out too many turns as a captive). The result of retirement
is the same as the explorer's death.

21.3 If an explorer dies or is retired the following things happen.

21.31 All unpublished discoveries and victory point awards are lost.

21.32 All unpublished mapped hexes visited only by that explorer are erased and
the marker removed. His discoveries are considered just rumors.

21.33 The player may start a new explorer and begin drawing for donations at the
beginning or the next turn.

21.4 The turn after an explorer enters a port he may return to Europe. It takes
one full turn to travel to Europe.

21.5 An explorer who travels to Europe must disband whatever is left of his
expedition. He must start over again fresh,

22.0 PUBLISHING   [Back to Top]

22.1 While in Europe, an explorer may publish any and all discoveries, bonuses
and any other awards due him that he has yet to publish. Only published
discoveries, bonuses and awards count toward victory. Once published, victory
points are never lost.

22.2 An explorer may not wish to publish all of the discoveries made by mapping.
This gives him an advantage as his later expeditions can move freely through
these hexes whereas other explorers must still treat them as unpublished and
unexplored. He must take care though that another explorer doesn't publish them

22.3 An explorer who is first to map a hex, make a spectacular discovery or
discover a plant, animal or the name of a tribe is not necessarily the one to be
awarded the victory points for the discoveries. The first explorer to publish
them gets heir victory points.

22.4 Once published, the types of discoveries described above in 22.3 cannot be
published again. All other bonuses and awards can be published freely.

For example, only one explorer can publish the terrain a particular hex
contains, but every explorer can get victory points for becoming friendly with
the same tribe.

22.5 Victory point losses are deducted immediately from the victory points
garnered so far by the current expedition. If there are no victory points
garnered from the current expedition, hey are deducted from the published total
(never reduced to less than 0).

22.6 A Victory Point Chart on the Player Aid Sheet provides a list of all
victory point amounts (not listed elsewhere) awarded to each specialty when
published. In cases where the terrain is jungle/swamp or jungle/mountain, use
the most advantageous of the two to determine victory points.

22.7 When determining spectacular discoveries (i.e.. the discoveries rated
first, second, third. etc. in size or height), it is done only at the moment
when their publication gives a player the win. Until then, they cannot be

22.8 When determining the size of lakes, first check the number of hexes each
lake contains (from one to three hexes maximum). If there is a tie, check the
extra square mileage as a tiebreaker.

22.9 Only those explorers who discovered the last of the lake hexes of the same
lake can claim the lake for spectacular discovery.

For example, only those explorers who explored the third hex to be mapped of a
three hex lake have a chance to publish it as a spectacular discovery. The
explorers who explored the first two hexes to be mapped can score only for the
lake terrain of the hex.

23.0 SPECIAL DISCOVERIES   [Back to Top]

23.1 There are eight counters on the mapboard. Any explorer who enters and does
not retreat out of the hex may look at the discovery on the counter. Blank
markers are false trails.

23.2 If not already published, the explorer may publish all the special
discoveries he has found.

23.3 Special discoveries may have great value depending upon the explorer
specialty. Their values are listed in the Victory Point chart.


24.1 A journalist has opportunities for acquiring victory pointsnot available to
anyother specialty.

24.2 For every battle in which an explorer defeats a native tribe, the
journalist receives 1 v.p. if in Africa.

24.3 For every battle in which an explorer is defeated by a native tribe, the
journalist receives 2 v.p. if in Africa. The added value to defeat results from
its greater news value.

24.4 The journalist receives these bonuses only once for each tribe that his
expedition personally battles. Put a check in the defeated column by the tribe
on the Player Aid Sheet as a reminder that thejournalist can no longer receive
victory points for personal battle with that tribe. This is done to prevent the
journalist from attacking a tribe turn after turn to gain victory points.

24.5 If two or more journalists are in Africa at the same time, the first back
to Europe to publish these battles gets their value. The others are out of luck.

24.6 The journalist receives 3 v.p. for interviewing an explorer whose current
expedition is now or has been four or more boxes from a port.

24.61 The journalist must be in the same hex as the explorer and in Africa.

24.62 The journalist is allowed only one interview per explorer per game.

24.63 The journalist cannot interview himself.


25.1 Not included in the Victory Point Chart are victory awards for finding the
longest river and making epic journeys.

25.2 Longest River Discoveries

25,21 Like spectacular discovery awards, long river discoveries are published
only when their publication can give a player the win.

25.22 The winning player gets 16 v.p. for publishing the hex farthest from the
mouth of largest river system.

25.23 The winning player gets 8 v.p. for publishing the hex farthest from the
mouth of the second largest river system.

25.24 The winning player gets 4 v.p. for publishing the hex farthest from the
mouth of the third largest river system.

25.25 The river system does not have to be completely mapped.

25.26 When determining the farthest hex, count the shortest possible route from
hex to mouth. The Nile is special of all other rivers because its true mouth is
not on the mapboard. Always add 25 hexes to its river system to reflect its off
board length.

25.3 Epic Jounleys

25.31 Each explorer who is the first to travel from one specific port directly
to another specific port from the group listed in 25.33 receives a bonus number
of victory points in addition to those regularly earned through exploration.
Another port cannot be entered during the journey.

25.32 The value of the epic journey is equal to the number of hexes published at
the same time by the explorer along the shortest traveled route from port to

25.33 EpIc Journey Destisintions

25.331 Between Khartoum and any of the Cape Colony ports (Capetown, Port
Elizabeth or Durban) and vice versa.

25.332 Between Khartoum and any of the east coast ports north of Durban and vice

25.333 Between Khartoum and any of the west coast ports north of Capetown and
vice versa.

25.334 Between any west coast port north of (but not including) Capetown and any
east coast port north of (but not including) Durban.


26.1 Unlike the start of the game where each player starts with $l,000 an
explorer returning to Europe or a new explorer must recruit money by donations
for a new expedition.

26.2 At the start of each turn in Europe, a player first decides whether his
explorer has enough donations (printed on the bottom of the Event cards) to
start a new expedition. If he does, he announces that the explorer is traveling
to Africa and spends the turn outfitting the expedition as explained in
Outfitting Your Expedition (5.0). The next turn the explorer can leave his
destination port in Africa with his expedition.

26.3 if the player decides that his explorer does not have enough donations to
sail to Africa, he discards all free tickets that he has. If he has over five
donations remaining, he reduces his donations to five.

26.4 Upon reducing his hand, the player may draw one donation.

26.5 The player may draw one additional donaion for each 4 vp. published that
turn. A player with an explorer in Europe is not required to publish all at
once, but can publish in any turn or over several turns.

26.6 Free tickets are a special type of donation. A free ticket allows an
explorer to sail to the port named from free. Without a free ticket, and
explorer must pay $500 to sail to a port of his choice. A free ticket need not
be used if the player does not wich to go to the port named.

26.7 Players cannot trade, buy or sell donations.

26.8 Each Event card contains one donation (No Donation is considered an
unfortunate type of donation). All donations are placed face up in view. There
is no secrecy in the donations received.

After 30 days of inactivity, a PBEM deck will automatically be deleted!
Any action (draw, shuffle, or update emails) will keep the deck active.
The Current Decks page now displays the date of last activity.

Source of the Nile is (c) 1979 Avalon Hill, and was designed by Ross Maker and Dave Wesely
All rules and components for this game are, and may only be, used solely for PBEM purposes.
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