BLACKBEARD Second Edition THE GOLDEN AGE OF PIRACY RULES OF PLAY The Avalon Hill Game Company Division of Monarch Avalon, Inc. * Printed in USA * All Rights Reserved 1. INTRODUCTION BLACKBEARD recreates "The Golden Age of Piracy" at the turn of the 18th century. Each player becomes one or more pirates and attempts to amass a fortune and retire before a King's Commissioner tracks him down, a Warship stumbles across him, or his own crew cuts his throat! Merchant ships plying the trade routes are the targets. Prizes range from near-worthless supplies to the fabulous Spanish and Mogul Treasure Ships. Luck, skill and cunning all play a part as you comb the Seven Seas (well ... at least three of them) for fame and fortune. Players should be aware that the game simulates 18th century piracy and therefore features random happenstance. Little can be planned. Players who are ready to strike when opportunity presents itself are wily and aggressive without being rash will fare best in the long run. Consult the index for definitions of unfamiliar terms. All capitalized terms and abbreviations in the rules are defined in the index. RECOMMENDED READING All serious gamers should subscribe to THE GENERAL, but BLACKBEARD players will particularly like Vol. 27, No. 6 (available approximately February, 1992) which will feature this game. Feature coverage usually includes a contest, designer's notes, sample game and publication of any errata or commonly asked questions in addition to major articles on the game itself. (c) 1991 The Avalon Hill Game Company + Printed in USA + All Rights Reserved < : Less Than <=: Less Than or Equal To > : Greater Than >=: Greater Than or Equal To Ability: 5.11 Action Line: The line on an Action card corresponding to the number of players which determines the next action or Player Turn. 6.1 Activation: (Pirates: 6.21, 12.4), (KC 13.2) Alliances: 20 Anchor: The act of entering a Port requires the payment of a Movement Point (above and beyond the normal cost of entry of that hex) for flipping the ship to its "Anchor" side. 8.7 Anti-Pirate Campaign: 14.31 Anti-Pirate Governor: 4.22 Articles: An agreement between Pirates. (20.1) Attack History: 9.62 Attacking Ports: 15 Back Off: To concede a duel; 19.4 Barter: 21 Blockade: 14.3 Booty (Captured Cargo & Hostages: 10.2, (Selling: 10.2-3) Bribed Governor: 10.21 Careening: 16.4 Cargo Manifest: 9,7 Challenged Warship Move: 6.34 Combat: 5.21, 13.61 (Multiple Warships: 14.2) Crew Unrest: 17F (Modifiers: 12.2) Cripple: 13.713 Cruelty: 5.12 Cunning: 22 Damage: 13.7 D & R (Debauchery & Revelry): 9.8, (Pirate Haven: 10.22), (Neutral/Pro-Pirate 10.221), (Mandatory D&R: 9.82) Double Cross: 18.2 dr6: A roll of one six-sided die. 2.5 DR12: A roll of two six-sided dice whose total is added together for a range of results from "2" to "12". 2.5 Dr66: A two-digit dice roll ranging from "11" to "66" derived by rolling two six-sided dice and reading the colored fie roll first, followed by the white die roll as a two digit number. 2.5 Duels: 5.15, 9.81, 19 Endurance: 19.31 Evasion: 5.24 Fractions: 2.7 Governor: 2.35, 4.2 (Bribing: 10.21), (Activation 17.1, D&R 10.221, Native Uprising 17G, Anti-Pirate Campaign 14.31) Hold: A storage area for Booty:; each Hold can carry all the Booty from one Prize. 5.23 Hostages: 9.71, (Ransom: 10.3), (Notoriety: 11.22) How to Win: 3 Hull Rot: 16.4, 17J Illegal Moves: 8.41 Information, Use of: 9.73, 15.3 Initial Pirate Activation: 6.21 Injury: 13.71 Intercept: 8.51 (Control: 14.13), (Automatic: 8.52), (Transit Box: 8.61) KC (King's Commissioner): 2.33, 13, (Intercept: 8.51) Leadership: 5.13 Letters of Marque: 17E (Warships: 14.12) Merchant: 9 (Initial Placement: 4.2), (Subsequent Placement 6.33) Movement: 8 (Warships: 6.34) Most Notorious Pirate: 6.35 Mutiny: 12 Nationality: 9.21 Neutral Port: A non-Pirate Haven which has neither a Pro- or Anti-Pirate Governor. 4.2 Net Worth: A Pirate's remaining total of previously sold Booty - including any stashed in his Safe Haven. 10.42 New Ships: 9.64 Notoriety: 11 Operations: 7 (Pirate 7.2), (KC 7.3) Ousting: (Pirates 13.5)m (D&R: 10.221), (KC: 17E2), (Warship: 14.3), (Failed Raid: 15.3), (Native Uprising: 17G) Petition the Crown: 13.21 Pirate Haven: One of three Ports (New Providence 44, Tortuga 35, Saint Marie 66) usually friendly to Pirates and not containing a Governor, 2.22 (Anti-Pirate Campaigns: 14.31), (D&R: 10.22) Port: The flagged Coastal hexes in which the game's various land Operations are conducted. 2.22 (Movement into: 8.7), (Port Attacks: 15) Prepare for Play: 4 Prize (Captured Merchant Ship): 9.6 Pro-Pirate Governor: 4.21 Raid: 15.4 Random Events: 17 Ransom: 10.3 Recovery: 13.715 Refitting Ships: 16 Retirement: 18 Sacking Ports: 15.5 Safe Haven: 10.4 (Purchase: 10.21) Scurvy: 17C Search: 9.3 Ship Logs: 2.6, 5.2 Shipping Lane: 4.3 Solitaire: 23 Speed: 5.22 Squadron: 14.2 Stashed Net Worth: 10.42 Storm: 9.31, 17D Torture: 9.73 Transit Boxes: 8.6, (KC Entry: 17K), (Merchants: 9.33) Unflagged: A ship with no identifying letter or background color. 9.21 Warship: 14 (Intercept: 8.51) (Movement: 6.34) (Search: 9.32) 2. GAME COMPONENTS 2.1 INVENTORY: Each game includes the following equipment: one 24" x 22" mounted mapboard one 8" x 22" mounted mapboard two sheets of die-cut playing pieces one rulebook 24 Pirate and 40 Action cards Two six-sided dice; one colored, one white eight Ship Log Cards (one Ship type on each side) Players must province five opaque cups for random draws of markers, and pencil/paper for notes. Lost pieces may be replaced by sending a stamped, self-addressed envelope to the TAHGC, 4517 Hartford Rd, Baltimore, MD 21214 and requesting a current Replacement Parts List or calling 1-800-99903222 Toll Free to place an order with any major credit card. 2.2 MAPBOARDS: The large map depicts the Caribbean and parts of the Atlantic. The small map shows part of the Gold Coast (Africa) and the Arabian Sea/Indian Ocean. 2.21 TERRAIN: The only terrain is land, Ports, and Ocean hexes. Ocean hexes are further divided into Sea and Coastal hexes. The Oceans are divided by hexagonal cells (hereafter referred to as hexes) for movement purposes. Although movement is not allowed through an all-land hexside, distances are measured in the shortest direct path regardless of the availability of a water route through those hexes. There are two types of Ocean hexes: Coastal (those hexes containing some land and a white shoreline) and dark blue Sea hexes (those containing no land). Some Ocean hexes are also designated as Shipping Lanes (4.3). The North Atlantic is separated from the Caribbean by black dashed lines from Florida to Transit Box 1. Each hex contains a black alphanumeric coordinate for reference purposes. Partial hexes are treated as full hexes and may be used normally. 2.22 PORTS: Ports are the rectangles within a Coastal hex containing a flag symbol, two-digit Port Number (ranging from 11 to 66), and a numeric Port Value/Garrison rating. The Nationality of each Port can be distinguished by either its flag or the background color of its rectangle. The three Ports with black Pirate symbols are the Pirate Havens (New Providence (44), Tortuga (35), and Isle Ste. Marie (66)) with no Port Value/Garrison rating. The other Port Nationalities are: Moorish: British: Spanish: Portuguese: French: Dutch: Green Red Yellow White Blue Orange 2.23 TRANSIT BOXES: The large light blue areas labeled "1" through "6" are Transit Boxes which enable ships to sail from one Ocean to the other. 2.3 UNITS: The large (3/8") die-cut playing pieces represent the combatants. The smaller (1/2") pieces are informational and are referred to as "markers". 2.31 PIRATES: Each player may have up to two Pirates in play at once. Each Pirate represents a ship and crew. The flip side is indicating that the Pirate is in Port in its current hex. Each Pirate also has a name marker to record his status on the Crew Unrest Track and a Ship Log on which to record his present status. 2.32 MERCHANTS: The yellow Merchant Ships are identical on the front. The flip side lists each ship's individual Defense Rating, nationality color and initial, and one of the five silhouette types pictured at right: 2.33 KING'S COMMISSIONERS (KC): Each KC represents the ship and crew of a representative of the British Crown commissioned to combat Piracy. Its Combat-Speed ratings are applicable only when it is a full strength. The current Speed and Combat Strength of each KC when damaged is recorded on the KC Display insert in the Atlantic Ocean using the KC name markers. 2.34 WARSHIPS: The red ships are elements of the various navies which mar be encountered. They are placed red side up because their flip side contains their nationality color and initial, combat and speed ratings which are known only by the player moving them at the time (see 6.34). 2.35 GOVERNORS: These arrive/depart by random drawings due to a Random Event (17G, 17I) or various player actions (Bribery 12.21, Anti-Pirate Campaign 14.31, D&R 10.221) and are either Anti-Pirate or Pro-Pirate. A port with no Governor is Neutral. Should the Governor draw cup become empty, all future Governor draws are considered Anti-Pirate and the Ports receiving them are recorded as being permanently Anti-Pirate. 2.4 MARKERS: The following markers are used to records information and are placed as the action dictates. 2.5 DICE: The game includes two dice of different colors. If only one is used, it is referred to as a "dr6" (die roll; note: singular, lower case). When both dice are thrown and added together (1 plus 6 = 7), it is referred to as a "DR12" (Dice Roll; note: plural, Upper Case). Sometimes both dice are rolled and the result is read as a two-digit number, reading the colored die first (a colored "4" and a white "3" is read "43"). The shorthand version of a two-digit Dice roll is "Dr66" (not: Upper and lower case). 2.6 SHIP LOGS: There are four types of Pirate ships which vary in size (number of holds), Speed, and Combat ratings. All Pirates start with a Sloop or a Schooner unless they take over an existing ship from a deposed Captain (12.4). During the course of play, Pirates may change Ship Logs by capturing Merchants (9.64). Appropriate Number markers are placed in the Cunning and Endurance spaces of the Ship Log to match that Pirate's ratings and are reduced accordingly as he expends them. 2.7 FRACTIONS: Whenever dealing with percentages, drop all fractions; i.e., round down to the nearest whole number (e.g., 7.9 = 7). 3. HOW TO WIN The player controlling the first Pirate to reach 100 Notoriety wins. Otherwise, the player controlling the surviving or retired Pirate with the most Net Worth at game end is the winner. The game ends when any player has lost and/or retired his third Pirate. However, if the eliminated player would win the game at that point, the game continues (with the retired player continuing to take KC Operations) until a second player has lost and/or retired three Pirates. For a shorter game, allow each player to activate only two Pirates. For a longer game, allow each player to activate four Pirates. 4. PREPARE FOR PLAY 4.1 CARD DISTRIBUTION: Remove the Captain Blood card from the deck. Separate the Pirate and Action cards into separate decks and shuffle each. Place Captain Blood on top of the Pirate deck to hide the identity of the next card, and allow each player to "cut" the deck and take the Pirate at the bottom of that portion of the deck which he has lifted. 4.2 GOVERNORS: Place all the Governors in a cup and draw six. Make a Dr66 for each one drawn and place it white-side up in the Port corresponding to that Dr66. Governors may not be placed in Pirate Havens. If a Pirate Haven or already occupied Port is rolled, roll again. 4.21 PRO-PIRATE: If the Governor is Pro-Pirate, no KC may enter that Port. 4.22 ANTI-PIRATE: If the Governor is Anti-Pirate, no Pirate may enter that Port without a Letter of Marque from that nationality (17E2) except to attack it (15) or claim a King's Pardon (17L). This does not prevent a retired Pirate from collecting his stashed Net Worth (10.42) there if it was his Safe Haven. 4.23 NEUTRAL PORT: Any Port with no Governor is neutral and can be entered by either Pirates or KC. 4.3 MERCHANT PLACEMENT: Put all Merchants in a cup. Draw six Merchants and an Action card for each - placing each Merchant yellow-side up in the numbered Shipping Lane corresponding to the one shown on the Action card. This number corresponds to one of the 36 Shipping Lane Numbers found inside white ship silhouettes on the map's Sea hexes. Each Shipping Lane Number is repeated in smaller type in the three surrounding hexes as a reference to help find it when covered by a piece. An asterisk (*) in the Shipping Lane symbol indicates that a Dr66 must be made to determine that Shipping Lane. 4.4 OTHER PREPARATIONS: Place the eight large KC pieces, all the Warships, and all Letters of Marque, separately, in the remaining three cups. 5. THE CARDS 5.1 PIRATES: The Pirates are primarily historical figures from piracy's Golden Age. The "Jolly Rogers" on many of the Pirate cards are accurate reproductions of the flags their namesakes flew to terrorize their victims. A brief biography of each character is on the card back. The front contains a likeness of the rascal - with some artistic license given the lack of photographs in the 17th century - and a list of the attributes of each as follows: 5.11 ABILITY: The Pirate's naval and combat skill, rated from 1 to 5. The higher the number, the better the Pirate. 5.12 CRUELTY: The Pirate's reputation for dastardly deeds with adds to his Notoriety (11.21). 5.13 LEADERSHIP: The Pirate's ability to control his crew; the higher the better. Think of it as charisma. 5.14 CUNNING: The number of times a Pirate may reroll the dice (see 22). Place an appropriate number marker on the "Cunning" space of his Ship Log to record the amount. 5.15 DUEL: The first number rates the Pirate's swordplay ability on attack. The second represents his defensive ability (see 19). 5.16 ENDURANCE: This is the number of times a Pirate may parry an otherwise lethal blow in the same duel. Place an appropriate Number marker on the "Endurance" space of his Ship Log to record the amount. 5.2 SHIP LOGS: All ships start play a full strength with their Speed/Combat markers in the second box of their respective Damage Tracks pointing to the values in the box to their left. Each Ship Type has different game capabilities as described below: 5.21 COMBAT: This is the ship's abstracted offensive and defensive value. It is reduced by one for each point of battle/crew damage suffered in any manner. Hereafter, all crew damage will be referred to as "Combat" damage whether incurred in battle or not. 5.22 SPEED: This number is added to a Movement dr6 (8.2) to produce the maximum movement rate for that ship during that turn. Speed is also used to determine the Pirate's Attack Number against Merchants and Interception chances against KC/Warships (8.51). The initial printed values range from 0 to +3 but can be reduced by storm (9.31) or hull damage (16.4, 17J) to a negative rating. A ship with a negative speed rating has a movement rate correspondingly less than the movement dr6 (to a minimum of one). A ship whose speed marker is moved to the right of the "Sunk" box so that the arrow points to "Sunk" is lost with all hands. 5.23 HOLDS: Each ship has a number of Holds for storing Booty. Each records the worth of one Prize by displaying appropriate number markers. Once Booty is sold, the Hold numbers are removed and added to the Net Worth Display on that Ship Log. 5.24 EVASION: The Schooner, due to its shallow draft, has a special Evasion capability which may enable it to escape Interception (8.51) in Coastal waters. Before being Intercepted, a Pirate in a Schooner may make an unmodified Evasion dr6. If it is > his pursuer's speed, he cannot be Intercepted that turn. 6. THE ACTION LINE 61. OVERVIEW: Players to not alternate "turns" as in most games. Rather an Action card is drawn and the line corresponding to the number of players (hereafter referred to as the ACTION LINE) is consulted to determine whose turn it is or what event has occurred. It is possible that a player may get consecutive "turns". This reflects a Pirate's life which usually consisted of long periods of isolation and inactivity punctuated by a few hours of frenzied action. 6.2 WHO GOES FIRST: Each player rolls the dice to determine a high roller who will become "Player 1". The others become Players 2, 3, and 4 in clockwise order around the table starting with Player 1. Player 1 performs an Operation and ends his turn by drawing an Action card to determine who will have the next turn. However, the Action Line may award him consecutive turns. The dice should always be retained by the last player to take a turn as a reminder of who took the last Operation. Each turn is ended by that player drawing an Action card to check the next Action Line. Reshuffle if you reach the bottom of the deck. 6.21 ACTIVATING PIRATES: The first Operation of each player without a Pirate in play is to activate one by placing it at sea in any hex of his choice. Each Pirate starts with his choice of a Schooner or Sloop Ship Log (Exception: 12.4). Place the Pirate's name marker on the "7" space of the Crew Unrest track. A player may activate another Pirate during his turn as his sole Pirate Operation by cutting the Pirate deck (4.1) provided he has not already activated his full allotment of Pirates or already has two in play. 6.3 ACTION CARD MECHANICS: The top three lines form the "Action Line" determining which player gets the next turn or what event occurs. Each line contains two, three, or four Jolly Roger symbols hereafter referred to as icons. The drawing player seeking a new Action Line always consults the line containing as many icons as there are players. The other two lines are not used. If there are two players, the first line with two icons is the Action Line. If there are three players (or you are playing Solitaire), the second line with three icons is the Action Line. The "KC" on the three player line is ignored except in the solitaire game (23.3). If there are four players, the third line with four icons is the Action Line. Each icon of the Action Line corresponds to one player: the first icon to player 1, the second to player 2, etc. The Action Line icon which is solid black identifies the player who gets the next turn. If none of the Action Line's icons are black, an action will be listed which must be implemented instead. After resolving that action, another card is drawn to determine who gets the next turn. 6.31 RANDOM EVENT: If the Action Line says "Draw Random Event", all cards must be reshuffled before drawing the next card to determine the Random Event by checking the fourth line (see 17). 6.32 PLAYER TURN: The indicated player must do one of the following actions in his turn: A. Activate a Pirate (6.21) or B. perform any one Pirate Operation (7.2) with one Pirate, or C. perform any one KC Operation with one KC (7.3). 6.33 MERCHANTMEN: If the Action Line states "Remove Odd Merchants", all Merchants on odd-numbered hexes/Transit Boxes are returned to the Merchant cup (even if "sighted" by a Pirate in the same hex). If the Action Line states "Remove Even Merchants", all Merchants on even-numbered hexes/Transit Boxes are returned to the Merchant cup. In both cases, or if the Action Line states "Draw New Merchant", the player must draw another Action card and consult the Shipping Lane icon to determine which Shipping Lane receives a randomly drawn Merchant. If the Action Line states "Draw Two Merchants", both are placed in the same Shipping Lane. 6.34 MOVE WARSHIPS: If the Action Line states "Move Warship", the player may: A. move each Warship a maximum of five hexes, or B. place a new Warship on a randomly selected Shipping Lane by checking the Shipping Lane symbol on another Action card. The player may not draw the Action card to determine the Shipping Lane or check any Warship's ratings before deciding which option to use. Once he has make his choice, only he may check the Warship's nationality unless he Intercepts with it. Each Warship has a printed movement rating. This rating can be exceeded by moving the ship up to five hexes, but only at the risk of losing that Warship if another player challenges the move. Any player questioning whether the Warship has exceeded its movement allowance may reveal the Warship's ratings. If the challenger is correct, the Warship is returned to the Warship cup. However, if the challenger is wrong, that Warship immediately moves to any Pirate of the challenger at the mover's option and attempts Interception (8.51) if at sea, or Ousts (13.5)/Blockades (14.3) him if in Port. 6.35 MOST NOTORIOUS PIRATE: If the Action Line states "Warship Intercepts most Notorious Pirate", return all Warships in play to the Warship cup. Then draw one Warship, place it in the same Sea hex/Transit-box with the most notorious Pirate of another player (drawing player's choice in the case of ties), and attempt Interception (8.51) barring successful Evasion (5.24). If the Pirate is in Port, the Warship Ousts him (13.5) or Blockades the Port (14.3). 7. OPERATIONS 7.1 OVERVIEW: An Operation is any of the various actions that a player can do when it is his "turn". He can use a KC if activated or one of his Pirates. He cannot do both. Merchants and Warships do not perform Operations; they simply appear, disappear, or move/attack as per the Action Line dictates. 7.1 PIRATE OPERATIONS: During his turn, a player may perform one of the following Operations with one of his Pirates provided he meets all requirements. Pirates may not act together unless allied (20.2). A. Move (8.2) and possibly Search (9.3) or attack a Port (15). B. Attempt to take a Prize (9.6) and possibly declare D&R if successful (9.8). C. Activate a new Pirate anywhere (6.21). D. Sell Booty (10.2) and possibly declare D&R, purchase a Safe Haven (10.21), or a Letter of Marque (17E). E. Ransom a Passenger (10.3). F. Refit Ship (16). G. Assault (15.3) or Sack a Port (15.5). H. Recover in Port (13.715). I. Retire voluntarily (18.3). J. Careen Ship (16.4) or remove Careen. 7.3 KING'S COMMISSIONER OPERATIONS: During his turn, a player may perform one of the following Operations with one KC. A. Petition the Crown for a KC (13.21) if without one. B. Move (13.4). C. Attempt to Intercept (8.51) and, if successful, attack a Pirate in the same hex (13.6). D. Recover (13.715). E. Refit (16.3). F. Careen Ship (16.4) or remove Careen. 8 MOVEMENT 8.1 OVERVIEW: Movement is at sea or into/out of Ports. There is no land movement or crossing of all-land hexsides. Each Ocean hex, whether Sea or Coastal, requires one Movement Point to enter. Flipping a unit to enter/leave a Port in the same hex costs a Movement Point even if remaining in that hex. 8.2 SPEED: A Pirate may move a number of hexes <= a dr6 plus the Speed Rating of his ship. Thus, a Pirate in an undamaged Sloop (Speed of +3) with a dr6 to "6" could move up to nine hexes in one turn. The minimum Speed is one. If its Speed rating were -1 it could only move five hexes on a "6" dr6. Once he throws the Movement dr6, a Pirate is committed to a Movement Operation. He may opt not to move, but if so his turn is over. 8.3 DAMAGE: A ship's Speed marker is moved one box to the right on its Speed Track for each point of damage sustained from Storm (9.31) or hull Damage (17J). Combat damage has no effect on a ship's speed - rigging hits being factored into the battle results. Regardless of the Movement dr6 or the ship's current Speed, a ship always has at least one Movement Point per turn. 8.4 MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT: A ship may move into any hex adjacent to it provided the intervening hexside is not all-land. For example, a Pirate may not move directly from Havana (G19) to La Hazana (G20). 8.41 ILLEGAL MOVES: An illegal move is allowed if not discovered prior to the end of the next player turn. However, if discovered prior to the end of the next player turn, the erring player forfeits his move and loses that turn. 8.5 KING'S COMMISSIONERS (KC): A KC does not use dice to produce a Movement allowance (see 13.4). 8.51 INTERCEPTS: If a Pirate enters a hex containing a KC/Warship at sea (even if he enters it involuntarily by being Ousted) he must make an Intercept dr6 adjusted by his current Speed modifier. If his modified dr6 is > the dr6 of that KC/Warship, the Pirate must end his turn and be attacked at the option of that KC/Warship. Pirates may never enter a Port occupied by a KC. If a Pirate starts his turn at sea in a hex with a KC/Warship he must exit the hex or be subject to another Intercept dr6 at the option of the KC in that Pirate's hex. A Warship will always attempt to Intercept at the end of the Pirate's turn if the Pirate is still in the Warship's hex. 8.52 AUTOMATIC INTERCEPTION: Interception occurs without either Evasion or Intercept die rolls whenever any Random Event occurs while a KC/Warship and a Pirate are already at sea in the same Transit Box or hex. They immediately proceed to combat at the option of the KC. The Random Event which triggered the interception is otherwise ignored. 8.6 TRANSIT BOXES: A Pirate may move from the Caribbean to The Gold Coast, and vice versa, or from the Gold Coast to the Arabian Sea/Indian Ocean, and vice versa only while using Transit Boxes. It costs an entire Movement Operation to enter/leave a Transit Box to/from an adjacent Transit Box or Arrow Hex so there is no need to determine the Pirate's Movement Allowance. Transit Boxes can be entered only from the next-higher or -lower numbered Transit Box or a connecting Arrow hex. A KC/Warship may enter a Transit Box from an Arrow entry hex only during a Random Event drawn by any player (see 17K for an exception). Whenever any Random Event is drawn, all KC/Warships on Arrow hexes may be moved into the adjoining Transit Box by their owner regardless of whose turn it is and before determining the exact nature of that Random Event. The moving player controls any Warships involved. Those KC/Warships are not eligible for automatic interception of any Pirates already in the Transit Box because they did not occupy the same Transit Box with the Pirate when the Random Event was drawn. A KC/Warship does not require a Random Event to leave a Transit Box - it does so by expending its entire Movement Operation. A Pirate/KC who leaves a Transit Box may not re-enter the same Transit Box until he has entered a Port. 8.61 INTERCEPTION: Interception in a Transit Box can occur only as a result of a Random Event (8.52), or Search (9.32), or a "Warship Intercepts Most Notorious Pirate" Action Line (6.35). 8.7 PORTS: A Pirate or KC at sea in a Port hex may land by spending one Movement Point and flipping to its Anchor side. Similarly, it costs on Movement Point to reflip the Anchor side to reach the Sea in the same hex. Intercepts (8.51) cannot be attempted by a KC/Warship in Port. However, a KC/Warship can "blockade" a Port by staying in the same hex at sea in expectation of an Intercept when the Pirate leaves. A KC which enters a Port containing a Pirate Ousts that Pirate (13.5) as part of its Movement Operation, but in doing so ends its turn. Warships never enter Ports of a different nationality or a Pirate Haven although they may end an Operation at sea in the hex to Blockade or participate in an Anti-Pirate Campaign (14.31). 9. MERCHANT SHIPS 9.1 OVERVIEW: Pirates gain Notoriety and Booty by seizing Merchants ("prizes"). Merchants also sometimes carry important passengers who may be held for ransom or provide information useful in attacking ports. 9.2 MERCHANT PLACEMENT: Merchants are drawn at random and placed on the map yellow side up (so as not to reveal their Nationality or Strength) in either of two ways: A. An Action card draw as per 6.33; or B. As a result of a Search (9.3). 9.21 NATIONALITY: Most Merchants contain an identifying nationality color and initial (See Nationality Key on the mapboard). Those without a specified Nationality are "Unflagged". Spanish ships in the Indian Ocean are always considered Unflagged. Unflagged ships assume the nationality of the closest Port at the start of each turn unless in a Shipping Lane. If in a a Shipping Lane, they assume the nationality of that Shipping Lane. If equidistant to multiple "closest" Ports, the attacking Pirate may choose which equidistant Port applies, even if the same Merchant was assigned a different Nationality in a previous Operation. 9.3 SEARCH: If a Pirate ends his Movement Operation at sea, he may end his turn by "searching" that hex/Transit Box for Merchants if he ends his turn a number of hexes away from his last position that is equal to his maximum speed (his Movement dr6 + Speed modifier) for that turn (or in a new Transit Box). He draws an Action card and checks the result listed on the fifth (Search) line. Some results will vary depending on on whether he is in a Coastal or Sea hex. Transit Boxes are considered Sea Hexes. 9.31 STORMS: When a Storm occurs it affects all ships at sea within three hexes of (or in the same Transit Box with) the moving Pirate (inclusive of his own hex). Merchants and Warships within the Storm range are returned to their respective Draw cups. Pirates/KC are affected as follows: 9.311 COASTAL: Each ship suffers Speed damage equal to a DR12 an moves its Speed marker to the right along its Speed Track accordingly. 9.312 SEA HEX/TRANSIT BOX: Each ship must make a dr6 and suffer speed damage equal to that dr6 with a corresponding shift to the right of its Speed marker along its Speed Track. 9.313 IN PORT/CAREENING: Anchored ships are not affected. Careening ships suffer Speed damage equal to a dr6. 9.32 WARSHIP: A new Warship is drawn from the cup, placed in the Searcher's hex/Transit Box, and attempts Interception (barring successful Evasion if in Coastal waters). 9.33 # MERCHANT: The indicated number of Merchants are drawn from the cup and placed beneath the searcher - thereby ending the current turn. A Merchant thus placed in a Transit Box can be attacked in the searcher's subsequent turns, but is returned to the Draw cup the instant the searcher leaves its Transit Box. That Merchant cannot be attacked by any other Pirate. 9.34 NO SIGHTING: There is no effect and the turn ends. 9.4 SPEED: Merchants never move. They remain in their placement hex until returned to the Merchant Draw cup. 9.5 MAXIMUM: The number of Merchants is limited to the number of such pieces in the game. If all Merchants are in play when another is needed, make a dr6. Treat an odd dr6 as a "Remove Odd Merchants" result and an even dr6 as a "Remove Even Merchants" result (6.33). All Merchants removed from the board for any reason are returned to the cup for possible reentry. 9.6 TAKING PRIZES: A Pirate may attempt to take a prize whenever starting his turn in that same hex with a Merchant; Searching/Intercepting is not required. Capturing a Merchant is a separate Operation and cannot be combined with Movement/Search. If there is more than one unidentified Merchant in a hex, the Pirate may not inspect them. The Merchant that he can attempt to capture this turn is drawn at random from among the unidentified Merchants. However, once he has found a Merchant, he may privately inspect its strength and nationality before deciding whether to attack. However, if he declines attack during the turn of inspection, he suffers a -1 penalty to his Crew Unrest status (12.2), and ends his turn. The now-identified Merchant is stacked on top of the Pirate ship until the Pirate leaves the hex or the Merchant is captured/withdrawn. If the Pirate leaves the hex, the Merchant would have to be identified anew before being stacked on top of a Pirate. 9.61 CAPTURE RESOLUTION: To capture a Merchant, the Pirate totals the Combat and Speed Ratings of his Ship plus his Ability Rating. From that total he subtracts the Defense Rating of the Merchant to arrive at an Attack Number. The player then makes a DR12. If the DR12 is <= the Attack Number, the Pirate has captured the Merchant. Captured Merchants are removed from the board and returned to the Draw cup. If the DR12 is one or two > the Attack Number the Pirate suffers that amount of damage and a like amount decrease on the Crew Unrest track. However, the Merchant remains on the board and may be attacked again in subsequent turns. If the DR12 is three or more > the Attack Number, the Merchant escapes and is returned to the Draw cup. EXAMPLE: Frederick Misson, Ability Rating of 4, attempts to take a Merchant. He has an undamaged Schooner with a Combat Rating of "5" and a Speed of +3. The Merchant has a Defense of "4". The Attack Number is 4 + 5 + 3 = 12 - 4 = 8. His DR12 is a "6" and because 6 is <= the Attack Number, Misson has captured the Merchant. If he rolls an "11" or more, it will escape and be returned to the Draw Cup. If he rolls a "9" or "10", it will escape temporarily but still be in the same hex subject to future capture attempts and he will suffer one or two points of combat damage. 9.62 ATTACK HISTORY: If he takes a Prize or attacks a Port, a Pirate must place its Nationality marker on his Ship Log (if not already so marked) to indicate that all Ports of that Nationality are thereafter Anti-Pirate Ports to him, and he may enter them only to attack or accept a King's Pardon (17L). 9.63 GIVING CHASE: A Pirate may attempt to capture an escaped Merchant as many times as he wishes, as long as both begin the Pirate's turn in the same hex and each attempt is a separate Operation of a new turn. The presence of another Pirate has no effect on the attempt unless they are allied (20.4). 9.64 NEW SHIPS: Pirates may convert a Prize for their own use. If a captured Merchant has a silhouette type matching that of the Capturing Pirate or of any currently unused Ship Log - and the Pirate wants to trade ships, he may do so if his Capture DR12 is Doubles and the Pirate sustained no damage while attacking that ship in previous turns. If so, the ship is in good enough condition to be used (it probably surrendered in expectation of mercy rather than attempt a running battle with the Pirate), and the Pirate may trade his old ship for the Merchant by exchanging it with any currently unused Ship Log matching the silhouette of the Merchant (including either side of his present Ship Log). He transfers all of his relevant cards/markers to their appropriate places on the new Ship Log. Any Speed or Combat damage on his old ship is lost; the new ship is always fully functional - crew losses being made good by pressing merchant seamen into Piracy. Cargoes in excess of the number of Holds on the new Ship are lost. Flutes (Merchants with a defense of 2) do not match any Pirate Ship Log and are not usable. No self-respecting Pirate would consider serving aboard such a scow. 9.7 SHIP'S CARGO MANIFEST: Only after taking a prize does the Pirate discover its value by drawing another Action card, checking the Cargo Manifest section, and cross-indexing the Merchant Defense with the currently-occupied Ocean. The result lists the worth of the cargo (in terms of the Captain's share). If the Cargo Manifest section includes "D&R", the Pirate Captain will lose a step on the Crew Unrest Track unless he declares Debauchery & Revelry (9.8). A Pirate may opt to refuse a cargo. If he takes the cargo, he records its value in an empty Hold with appropriate number markers. He may have only one item in each Hold at any one time. If his holds are full, he may still take Prizes, but if he decides to take their cargo, he must jettison the contents of a Hold. 9.71 HOSTAGES: After checking the ship's Cargo Manifest, draw another Action card and check the Hostage line to determine if there is a valuable passenger on board. The Hostage line contains a number. If this number plus the Merchant Defense value plus a modifier for the currently occupied Ocean >= 10, the ship contains one valuable passenger and the Pirate gains five extra Notoriety for taking him hostage. The Ocean modifier is -2 for the Gold Coast, -1 for the Indian Ocean, 0 for the Caribbean, and +1 for the North Atlantic. A Pirate may take any number of Hostages by recording the number held with an appropriate marker in the Hostage section of the Ship Log. Hostages require no Hold space but because they can die at sea it is best not to hold them too long. 9.72 HOME PORT: If the Pirate takes a Hostage, he draws another Action card and cross-indexes the "HP" column with the current Ocean area to determine the Port where the Hostage is from or going. If an "*" is present instead of a Port number, the Home Port is the closest Port of the captured ship's nationality on that Ocean. Otherwise it is the closest Port. If two such Ports are equidistant, the Pirate may choose which applies. Regardless of the Home Port, the Hostage is always considered to be the same nationality as the Prize. The Pirate now decides whether to torture his Hostage for information. 9.73 TORTURE: On the turn of capture, a Pirate may torture his Hostage to amuse his crew (thereby adding one to his Crew Unrest status; 12.2) and gain information to help in attacking the Hostage's Port (15.3). The questioning "process" is conducted with a dr6. If he rolls <= his Cruelty Rating he gets information; if he rolls > his Cruelty Rating he does not. However, if the dr6 is < his Cruelty rating, the Hostage dies. A Hostage can be tortured only once. If he provides information, that Pirate records the Port's name. Port information is useful until: * the owning Pirate retires/dies, or * its Governor is replaced, or * the Port is attacked. 9.8 DEBAUCHERY & REVELRY (D&R): If a Pirate takes a prize he may opt to declare "Debauchery & Revelry (D&R)" at the end of his turn and thereby improve his Crew Unrest Status by moving his marker up one space. He must also place a D&R marker on his ship, which will remain there until his next turn which he will forfeit while his crew sleeps it off. However, although the D&R Pirate has lost his next turn, the player has not. He may use the Pirate's forfeited turn to Petition the Crown, move a KC, or take a Pirate Operation with his second Pirate. If a D&R Pirate is overtaken he must subtract two from all Intercept, Evasion and Battle dice rolls in that turn (including determination of Continuation of the battle (13.62)). Remove the D&R marker as soon as the Pirate forfeits a turn, or performs an alternate action with another Pirate/KC. 9.81 DUEL: Whenever engaging in D&R, the most notorious Pirate of another player (even if allied) in the same location must be challenged to a duel. The challenge continues in subsequent turns until the D&R is removed or that Pirate has been in a duel. 9.82 MANDATORY D&R: Some prizes - due to the newly captured supply of rum or women they provide as indicated by the "D&R" symbol on the Cargo Manifest - are more likely to create D&R. If a Pirate refuses Mandatory D&R (even if the cargo is refused), he suffers a point loss on the Crew Unrest Track. 10. BOOTY 10.1 OVERVIEW: A Pirate turns Booty (captured cargo and Hostages) into Net Worth with Sale or Ransom Operations. Net Worth is necessary in order to voluntarily retire (18). Only by retirement can a player safeguard a Pirate's Net Worth. Otherwise, his Net Worth is lost when the Pirate dies. 10.2 SELLING BOOTY: A player sells Booty in a Port to turn it into Net Worth. If he sells it in a Pirate Haven, he must deduct 20% of its value. If he sells it in his Safe Haven he adds 20%. If he sells it in a Pro-Pirate Port he adds 10%. Selling Booty is an Operation wherein the Pirate empties all or some of his Holds and adds the cumulative value of the sold Booty to the Net Worth section of his Ship Log. Net Worth does not detract from his Hold space. A Pirate may purchase a Letter of Marque (once a Random Event makes it available; 17E) and/or attempt to bribe a Governor (10.21) for a Safe Haven as part of the same Operation. A Pirate gains +1 on his Crew Unrest Track and +1 Notoriety for each multiple of 100 Doubloons of Net Worth received from sale of Booty. 10.21 BRIBING A GOVERNOR: At the end of any Sell Booty Operation (even if no Booty is sold), a Pirate may purchase Safe Haven status when in a Pro-Pirate port by paying an optional bribe = 100 x a dr6 from the Net Worth aboard his ship. If in a Neutral Port, he may attempt to bribe the Governor in the same way, but must draw a Governor marker from the Governor cup. If it is a Pro-Pirate Governor, it remains in that Port and the Port becomes a Safe Haven for that Pirate. If it is an Anti-Pirate Governor, the bribe fails (but is not repaid) and the Governor is returned to the Governor cup. There is no redraw. A Pirate Haven cannot be a Safe Haven. 10.22 PIRATE HAVEN D&R: If a Pirate sells Booty or ransoms a Hostage in a Pirate Haven he faces Mandatory D&R at the end of his turn, thereby improving his status on the Crew Unrest Track by moving his marker up one space. The usual D&R penalties (9.8) apply. 10.221 NEUTRAL/PRO-PIRATE D&R: Whenever a Pirate takes a Sell Booty Operation (whether he sells any or not) in a Neutral or Pro-Pirate Port, he has the option to declare D&R as part of that sale. However, he must also draw a Governor marker. If he draws an Anti-Pirate Governor in a Neutral Port, the Anti-Pirate Governor remains and the Pirate is immediately Ousted (13.5). If he draws an Anti-Pirate in a Pro-Pirate Port, the Pro-Pirate Governor is permanently removed from play (unless it is his Safe Haven in which case the Pirate forfeits his Safe Haven status and the Pro-Pirate Governor remains) and the Anti-Pirate Governor is returned to the Governor cup. In all cases, any Pro-Piracy Governor drawn is permanently removed from play. 10.3 RANSOM: Hostages become Net Worth by ransoming them in any Port. Ransoming each Hostage requires a separate Operation. To complete the Operation, he makes a dr6 and multiplies the result by 100 to determine the amount gained (plus or minus the appropriate percentage for the type of Port; 10.2). 10.4 SAFE HAVEN: Certain ports turned a blind eye to Piracy conducted by a native son if it helped the local commerce. A Pirate who greased the right palms could occasionally obtain favorable trading conditions. A Pirate may use a Safe Have for: * Selling Booty at increased prices (10.41) * Quicker Refit of his ship (16.1), * Voluntary Retirement (18.3). * Stashing his Net Worth (10.42) 10.41 SELL BOOTY: If a Pirate sells Booty at his Safe Haven, he may increase his Net Worth gain by 20%. 10.42 STASHING NET WORTH: A Pirate may also stash his Net Worth for safe keeping in his Safe Haven at any time he is in that Port regardless of whether it is his turn (unless he is in the process of being Ousted) by making a side note of the location and amount. In that way he avoids losing it if he survives a Mutiny (12.32) or his ship is captured (18.2). However, if his Safe Haven is sacked (15.5), he loses all Net Worth stashed there. A Pirate may not recover stashed Net Worth prior to his retirement. 10.43 LOSS OF SAFE HAVEN: Safe Havens cannot be used by a Pirate while the Port has an Anti-Pirate Governor, but any Net Worth already stashed there is still his, pending his retirement. Should the Anti-Pirate Governor be removed, the Pirate's Safe Haven status is restored. A Pirate loses his Safe Haven and any Net Worth stashed there if he attacks and Merchant/Port of that nationality. 11. NOTORIETY 11.1 OVERVIEW: Aside from the acts of the unusual number of psychotics that Piracy produced, cruelty was often a calculated means to an end, especially in an era - and a job - that held little else in the way of amusement. It kept the drew entertained, for the position of Captain was usually elective. Not keeping his crew happy? Marooning - being abandoned on a lifeless island - was the common response, although a simple knife in the throat was not uncommon. Pirates gain Notoriety for a variety of actions and this proves to be a two-edged sword. 11.2 GAINING NOTORIETY: A Pirate gains Notoriety for how he "handles" his victims after taking a Prize and for being successful in combat. 11.21 MERCHANTS: A Pirate's Notoriety increases by the value of his Cruelty rating after taking a Prize. However, if he has suffered damage in the capture during a previous turn, the Notoriety gain due to his Cruelty rating is doubled for the vengeance he wreaks on his victim for daring to resist. Record the new Notoriety total on the Pirate's Ship Log with appropriate number markers. Later, his Notoriety will increase one for each multiple of 100 doubloons of Net Worth received for sold Booty. 11.22 HOSTAGES: A Pirate gains five additional Notoriety whenever he takes a Hostage. 11.23 PORTS: Pirates gain Notoriety equal to the Port's Defense rating if they successfully raid a Port (15.4). Additional Notoriety equal to double the Port's Defense rating is earned if they sack the Port in their next turn (15.5). 11.24 BATTLE: A Pirate gains five Notoriety every time he escapes battle (13.64) by leaving the battle hex/Transit-Box following a successful Interception by a KC/Warship (13.6), and gains Notoriety equal to the KC's original Combat Strength if he sinks one. 11.25 DUEL: A Pirate gains Notoriety equal to the total of the opposing Pirate's Duel (Attack and Defense) and Endurance ratings if he kills that Pirate or forces him to Back Down in a duel (19.4). A Pirate who Backs Down loses the same amount of Notoriety (to a minimum of 0). 12. MUTINY 12.1 OVERVIEW: A possible Mutiny occurs whenever a "Crew Unrest" Random Event (17F) is drawn. The drawing player selects any Pirate of any player in play to undergo a Mutiny Check DR12. If the DR12 is > that Pirate's current standing on the Crew Unrest Track, a Mutiny attempt occurs. A Mutiny attempt also occurs when a Pirate's Crew Unrest marker reaches 0 unless currently engaged in combat. 12.2 CREW UNREST TRACK: A Pirate's marker always starts on the "7" space of the Crew Unrest Track. It moves along the Track in accordance with the following events: +1 Escape Blockade (14.3) +1 Torture Hostage (9.73) +1 Enter Safe Haven with full Holds (10.4) +1 Each D&R (9.8) +1 Per 100 Doubloons of Net Worth gained from sale of Booty (10.2) +2 Wins Duel (19.4) +3 Sack a Port (15.5) -1 Survive Mutiny Attempt (12.31) -1 Decline Merchant Capture Attempt after revealing Nationality (9.6) -1 Per point of Combat Damage (13.7) sustained from any cause except Scurvy -1 Blockaded in a Port (14.3) * -1 Refused Mandatory D&R (9.7, 9.82, 10.22) -1 Pirate Captain suffers Minor Wound (13.712) or Scurvy (17C) -2 Pirate Captain is crippled (13.713) -2 Scurvy aboard ship (17C) * -3 Backed Out of Duel (19.4) * Repeat during every Random Event while condition still exists. The Crew Unrest marker never moves below "0" or above "15". 12.3 MUTINY OUTCOME: Any Pirate affected by a Mutiny attempt must make a Mutiny Outcome dr6. 12.31 If the dr6 is < his Leadership, he has talked his way out of the jam and may continue to live out his life of crime. Reset his Crew Unrest marker to "6". 12.32 If the dr6 equals his Leadership, he is allowed to Retire, but loses all on-board Net Worth (see 10.42). 12.33 If the dr6 is > his Leadership, the mutiny was successful and he has been marooned and left to die. He loses everything and is removed from play. 12.4 AFTERMATH: Whenever a Pirate is lost due to Mutiny, duel, illness, or Voluntary retirement, that player immediately starts another Pirate in that Captain's place, if he has any left to draw (regardless of whose turn it is). The new Pirate inherits the deposed Captain's ship (including any damage it may currently have) and position on the map, as well as any Booty on board. However, the former Captain's Net Worth, Letters of Marque, Notoriety, Attack history, useful information and remaining Cunning are removed and the Crew Unrest is reset to 7. A Pirate lost in battle due to wounds incurred or being sunk is not replaced in this manner. His replacement starts anew (6.21) with a different Sloop or Schooner in any hex. 13. THE KING'S COMMISSIONERS (KC) 13.1 OVERVIEW: When Pirates became too successful, the underwriters of Merchant vessels managed to persuade the King that Britain's best interests would be served if the crown sent a warship to hunt the scoundrels down - financed, of course, by those merchants. These glorified seagoing bounty hunters were called the King's Commissioners. Occasionally, as in the case of Sir Henry Morgan who rid Jamaica of Pirates in an earlier decade, these KC were themselves "reformed" Pirates who circumstance allowed to change sides. The Movement rate of KC reflects more than just relative speed. It is demonstrably lower than the average Pirate's movement allowance to overcome the omniscient player's "eye in the sky" or "Pirate radar" advantage and thus reflects the difficulty of "tracking" at sea. KC/Warship strength is inversely proportional to their speed because the more imposing the force, the harder it was to lure Pirates into battle. 13.2 ACTIVATION: KC can be activated through Petitions (13.21) or Random Events (17K). Each player may have no more than two KC at one time. 13.21 PETITIONING THE CROWN: A player without a KC may Petition the Crown for one during his turn as his KC Operation. A player successfully Petitions the Crown by making a Dr66 <= the Notoriety of any active opposing Pirate. 13.22 KC PLACEMENT: A player gets a new KC by drawing it from the KC cup and placing it in the Transit Box leading to the Ocean currently containing the opposing Pirate with the most Notoriety (Box 1 for Caribbean and Atlantic, Box 3 for the Gold Coast, and Box 6 for Indian Ocean/Arabian Sea) or in the same Transit Box as that Pirate. If there are no opposing Pirates in play (17K), he may place it in any Transit Box. 13.23 REPLACED KC: If a KC is killed or otherwise withdrawn to Europe, it is returned to the KC cup and will be activated again at full strength if randomly drawn by any player entitled to draw a KC. 13.3 OPERATIONS: During his turn, a player must Petition the Crown or undertake either a Pirate or a KC Operation (unless he has no Pirates in play - in which case he must activate one). 13.4 MOVEMENT: A KC may move a number of hexes <= his current Movement rating. This rating can be reduced by Storm/hull damage sustained in the same manner as a Pirate (8.3), except that such a loss is recorded on the KC Display by moving the KC's marker across the Track. 13.5 OUSTING PIRATES: If a Pirate is forced to leave a port, whether by entrance of a KC/Warship of other events, the Pirates therein lose one step on their Combat Track and are flipped within the hex to symbolize their movement out of the Port. Interception is not possible unless another KC/Warship is already at sea in that hex (8.51). The Pirate prays that the Ousting KC/Warship doesn't get another turn before he does. Pirates may not return to a Port from which they have been Ousted prior to landing at a different Port. 13.6 COMBAT: If a Pirate is at sea in the same location with an opposing KC at the start of the KC's Operation, they must each make an Intercept dr6 (8.51). If the Pirate's Speed modified dr6 is > the KC's dr6, the Pirate may avoid or join combat at his option. Otherwise, the KC/Warship may avoid or join combat at its option. If there is more than one Intercepted Pirate/KC in that hex, the Interceptor may attack the one of his choice. He may not attack two Pirates in one turn unless they are allied (20.5). 13.61 RESOLUTION: The Pirate Strength equals his Ability plus the current Combat rating of his ship. Both players make a DR12 and add it to their respective Combat Strengths. The difference (if any) between the modified dice rolls is the number of damage points suffered by the player with the lesser amount. The winner of each round of battle suffers one point of damage. Warships never take actual losses. 13.62 CONTINUATION: Regardless of their total Strengths and damage sustained, the player who rolled higher in the battle (without modification except for D&R, 9.8) may decide whether to continue combat for another round or to end the turn. Warships always elect to continue. If neither opponent rolled higher than the other, the combat continues. 13.63 SURRENDER: Before combat is resolved or between rounds of any multi-round combat, a Pirate may surrender and trust to his Letter of Marque (17E) to save his bacon (18.2). If his ship is sunk first, he is killed and his Letter of Marque is worthless. A Letter of Marque is effective only against KC/Warships of the same nationality as the Letter of Marque. 13.64 NOTORIETY GAIN: If a Pirate in combat with a KC/Warship escapes from the same hex/Transit-Box containing his adversary, he gains five Notoriety. If he sinks a KC, he gains Notoriety equal to that KC's original Combat rating. Evasion of failure to Intercept does not earn Notoriety. 13.7 DAMAGE: When a Pirate/KC receives Combat damage, the Combat marker is moved along the Ship Log/KC Damage Track an appropriate number of spaces with corresponding reduction of his Combat ratings. If the Ship's Combat Rating is reduced to the "Sunk" box that Pirate/KC is removed from play. A Pirate is immune to mutiny during the rounds of battle, but once free of battle, if his Crew Unrest has been reduced to 0 he must undergo a Mutiny Attempt (12.1). 13.71 INJURY: For each point of non-Speed damage sustained by a Pirate/KC from any cause (including Scurvy), that player must make an immediate injury dr6 to determine whether the Pirate Captain/KC himself is injured. Any result other than "1" has no effect. However, if he rolls a "1", he must draw an Action card and consult the bottom line to determine the effect of that injury. 13.711 SUPERFICIAL WOUNDS: Reduce all ratings of the Pirate/KC by one for the balance of the turn for each Superficial Wound inflicted. No Recovery Operation is necessary to remove these effects. 13.712 MINOR WOUNDS: Minor wounds are noted by an asterisk (*). Mark the Pirate card/KC with a Wound marker, reduce all of his personal ratings except Cruelty by two and lower his status by one on the Crew Unrest Track. A Pirate/KC may fully Recover from this injury (13.715). 13.713 CRIPPLING WOUNDS: Major wounds are noted by a double asterisk (**). Mark the Pirate card/KC with a Cripple marker. Permanently reduce a Pirate's Duel and Endurance ratings by one, and increase his Cruelty rating by one (up to a maximum of 5). All his ratings except Cruelty are reduced by three until he Recovers (13.715). Lower a Crippled Pirate's status on the Crew Unrest Track by two. If a Pirate/LC loses two of any limb or both eyes, he is considered dead. 13.714 SHIP EFFECTS: Due to the incapacity of their leader, the ship of an injured Pirate/KC loses one space on both his Combat/Speed Tracks (to a minimum of 1) for each reduction in a Pirate's/KC's ability until he recovers to reflect the crew's lessened efficiency and attention to duty during his recuperation. 13.715 RECOVERY: A Pirate/KC may recover from wounds by declaring a "Recovery" Operation in any Port. All of his Wound-related reduced ratings then return to their printed state except those permanently reduced by a Crippling wound. A Recovery Operation is necessary to rid a ship of Scurvy whether or not the captain is so afflicted. 13.716 CUMULATIVE EFFECTS: Any combination of Scurvy, Minor or Crippling wounds prior to Recovery is immediately fatal. 13.72 CREW UNREST: A Pirate suffers a one-point reduction on the Crew Unrest Track for each point of Combat damage suffered from any cause except Scurvy. 14. WARSHIPS 14.1 OVERVIEW: The "command" of Warships varies from turn to turn. Warships are drawn randomly. They differ in Attack Strength, Speed, and nationality. If a Warship has no nationality indicated, it is treated as an Unflagged Merchant (9.21). The difficulty of capturing a Pirate with a Warship reflects the wide berth Pirates gave them; never offering battle voluntarily. It also reflects a lack of zeal by the Warships inasmuch as they benefitted financially from any Pirate presence in local waters by charging lucrative convoy and freight fees. Warships never suffer damage in combat but otherwise resolve combat the same as a KC (13.61). Warships appear either by Action Line dictate or an Action card Search draw (9.32). 14.11 ACTION LINE: If summoned by an Action Line result of "Warship Intercepts most Notorious Pirate" (6.35), all Warships are returned to the Warship cup and another is drawn to Intercept, Oust, or Blockade the Pirate with the most Notoriety. If summoned by an Action Line result of "Move/Draw Warship" (6.34), it attempts to Intercept, Oust, or Blockade any Pirate in its hex at the end of movement this turn. If there is no Pirate in the entered hex, it stays there until a Pirate enters that hex (at which point that Pirate is subject to Intercept; 8.51), or until another "Move Warship" draw allows the activating player to move it. 14.12 LETTER OF MARQUE: A Warship will attack any Pirate at the option of the controlling player - even one with a Letter of Marque (17E1) or without an Attack history vs its nationality. 14.13 INTERCEPT CONTROL: A Warship attempting an Intercept (8.51) due to a Pirate moving into its hex or a Search result (9.32) is controlled by the player to the right of the moving Pirate. 14.2 SQUADRON: If several Warships appear in the same hex with a Pirate, they must each attempt Interception separately. If two or more are successful by of different nationalities, they attack separately - the slowest Warship attacking first, and the fastest Warship attacking only after the Pirate escapes the first. If two or more Warships (not KC) of the same nationality each intercept a Pirate, their Strength is totalled and added to a single DR12 in any resulting combat (13.6). 14.3 BLOCKADES: Warships may enter Ports to Oust Pirates only if the Port is the same nationality as the Warship. Once Ousted from a Port, a Pirate may not return to it before landing at another Port. Any KC/Warship placed at sea in a Port hex is Blockading that Port and puts all entering/departing Pirates at risk of Interception (8.51). Any Pirates in a Blockaded Port suffer a -1 penalty on the Crew Unrest Track (12.2) and this penalty is repeated during every Random Event while the Blockade lasts. If the Blockade is broken by either the blockader or the Pirate leaving the hex, any Pirates thereby freed gain a point of the Crew Unrest Track. A Pirate may not sell Booty or ransom Hostages while Blockaded. 14.31 ANTI-PIRATE CAMPAIGN: A KC may enter a Pirate Haven only if that Pirate Haven is occupied and another KC or British Warship remains at sea as a Blockade in the same hex. When this occurs, any Pirates inside are Ousted normally (13.5) and the KC/Warship at sea has an Intercept opportunity (8.51). If a Pirate has been Ousted from the Pirate Haven, a Governor marker is drawn. If the drawn Governor is Pro-Pirate there is no effect and the Governor is removed from play. If the Governor is Anti-Pirate, he remains in the Pirate Haven which becomes a 1-4 British Port thereafter. Place an English Port marker on the ex-Pirate Haven. Even if the Governor is removed, the Port can never be a Pirate Haven again. 15. ATTACKING PORTS 15.1 PORT DEFENSE: All attackable Ports have a printed "basic" Garrison Strength (a number from 4-17), representing troops stationed there. A Port's printed Garrison Strength never changes. 15.2 ELIGIBLE TARGETS: A Pirate may attack any Port except: A. Any current Pirate Haven; B. A Port with a KC/Warship of the Port's nationality in the same hex; C. A previously sacked or destroyed Port, or one currently under attack. 15.21 OPERATION: Attacking a Port can be a separate Operation (if the Pirate starts the Operation in that Port) or part of a Movement operation, in which case he moves into the Port, Anchors, and attacks it in the same turn. 15.3 RESOLUTION: To resolve a Port Attack, the Pirate adds his Ability rating to his ship's Combat Strength plus a dr6. If he has useful information (9.73), he may make a DR12 instead. That total is compared to the Port's Defense Strength plus a DR12. If the Pirate's total is <= the Port's total, the attack fails, the Pirate suffers a number of damage points equal to the amount by which the Port's total exceeded his, and his ship if not sunk outright is Ousted for an additional point of damage. The Pirate may not attack that Port again until his ship is fully refit. However, if the Pirate's total exceeds that of the Port's, the raid is successful, the Pirate remains anchored, and suffers damage equal to one less that the lowest dr made by the Port. Regardless of the outcome, the Pirate places a Nationality marker of that Port on his Ship Log Attack History if not already present. EXAMPLE: Howell Davis has a Three-Masted Square Rigger and useful information about Cartagena when he attacks it. He adds his Ability (4), his ship's Combat rating (10), and a DR12 of 7 for a total of 21. Cartagena adds its defense rating of 8 to a DR12 of 8 ("6", "2") for a total of 16. Cartagena falls and the Pirate suffers one point of damage in the process. 15.4 PORT VALUE: After successfully raiding a Port, the Pirate rolls a number of dice equal to the value of the Port, and multiplies the total by 100 to determine how much Booty has been recovered (in terms of the Captain's share). Regardless of the amount, it fills all Holds on the Pirate ship. Any Booty already present on the ship must be abandoned or an appropriate fractional share of the Port's Booty forfeit for each Hold previously filled and not abandoned. The Pirate gains Notoriety equal to the Port's defense rating. After a successful raid, the Port is marked with a "Number" marker showing its value as one grade less than previously - down to a minimum of "0". A Port with a value of 0 is still a Port. A Pirate MUST use his next turn to either depart or Sack the Port; he may not move a KC or another Pirate instead. EXAMPLE: A Brigantine has Booty worth 1000 Doubloons in one of its Holds before raiding a Port which yields 600 Doubloons. As the Pirate has only 2/3 of its Hold space available, it can claim only 400 Doubloons from the Port to fill its remaining two Holds. 15.5 SACKING PORTS: If the raiding player opts to spend his next turn anchored in that Port, he must attempt to sack it by attacking it again to defeat the Port's reinforcements. This time he may not roll an extra die (for useful information), but the Port may add only half its Defense rating to its DR12 (fractions rounded up). Resolve the attack normally. If successful, mark it with a "Port Destroy" marker. The Pirate will gain additional Notoriety equal to twice the Port's Defense rating plus a +3 modification to his status on the Crew Unrest Table. A sacked Port may not be used for any Operation for the rest of the game and may not be looted again after being sacked. The Net Worth of any Pirate stashed in a sacked Port is lost, although not recovered by the sacking Pirate. 16. REFITTING SHIPS 16.1 HAVENS: For every Refit Operation a Pirate undergoes while in his Safe Haven or a Pirate Haven, all Combat damage to his ship is repaired. 16.2 OTHER PORTS: For every Refit Operation a Pirate undergoes in a Neutral Port, he may repair one point of Combat damage, adjusting his Combat ratings by moving the marker one square to the left on his Combat Track. If Refitting in a Pro-Pirate Port, he may repair two points of Combat damage for each Refit Operation. 16.3 KING'S COMMISSIONER (KC): A KC may repair damage by declaring a Refit Operation if he is occupying a Neutral or Anti-Pirate Port. Each KC Refit Operation in a Neutral Port repairs one point of Combat damage. Each KC Refit Operation in an Anti-Pirate Port repairs two points of Combat damage. 16.4 CAREENING: Wooden ships in warm climates suffered constant deterioration from barnacles and teredo worms that tunneled through the hull below the water line, robbing vessels of speed and, ultimately, seaworthiness. Crews had to periodically combat this by a process called "Careening" which involved beaching the vessel, scraping the hull, and coating it with a protective mixture of tar, tallow, and sulfur. Pirates/KC may repair Speed damage to their ship (including Storm damage) only by declaring a Careening Operation in any Coastal hex/Port, marking their location with a Careening marker, making a dr6 and repairing that many points of Speed damage. It takes another Operation to remove a Careening marker. A Careening Pirate in the same Coastal hex/Port with a KC/Warship is killed if Intercepted. The Pirate may not modify his Interception dr6. A Careening KC cannot harm, or be harmed by, a Pirate. Careening cannot be combined with movement. 17. RANDOM EVENTS OVERVIEW: Besides introducing rare happenings, Random Events abstractly measure the passage of time. Whenever a Random Event occurs any KC/Warship in the same hex/Transit Box with a Pirate automatically intercepts (8.52), all Blockaded Pirates suffer a Crew Unrest penalty (14.3), the conditions of all Pirates/KC at sea with Scurvy worsen (17C) and any Warship/KC on an arrow hex may enter its Transit Box (8.6). A Random Event occurs when the Action Line indicates such. The player who drew it shuffles the deck, draws another card, and checks the "Event" line for the result. Unless stated otherwise, the event applies to him as follows: A. EARTHQUAKE: The player makes a Dr66 to determine a Port which has been destroyed by Earthquake (along with everyone and all stashed Net Worth in it). That Port may not be used again. B. PLAGUE: A Dr66 determines a Port struck by Plague. Each Governor, Pirate, or KC in that Port is killed. Otherwise, there is no effect. Plague lasts only one turn. C. SCURVY: Illness strikes all active Pirates/KC ships in a Transit box plus any controlled by the drawing player currently at sea. Each ship affected suffers one point of Combat damage representing crew loss and is marked with a Scurvy marker. A Pirate with Scurvy aboard must subtract two from his status on the Crew Unrest Track and this penalty is applied each time the condition worsens due to a new Random Event being drawn. C1. PERSONAL INJURY: In addition, each ship affected must make a dr6 to determine if the Pirate Captain/KC himself is ill. If he rolls a "1", he is sick and all of his Ratings are reduced by two and his Crew Unrest marker lowered by one as if he were wounded until he recovers (place a Scurvy marker on him). A "2" dr6 kills any Hostages on board. C2. DURATION: Every time a new Random Event is drawn, any ship at sea with a Scurvy marker suffers another Combat damage point and two Crew Unrest due to its worsening effects and must roll again for the effect on the Pirate Captain/KC. An already sick/wounded Pirate Captain/KC who rolls a "1" again dies. There are no additional penalties should the new Random Event result in Scurvy against the same Pirate/KC again. C3. RECOVERY: Once in Port, a Pirate/KC can return to health with a Recover Operation which will remove his Scurvy marker and return his personal ratings to their pre-illness state. His ship will require Refit Operations to recover its Combat rating. D. STORMS AT SEA: The last ship, still in play, to perform n Operation of the drawing player (be it Pirate, KC, or Warship) is at the center of the storm. The effect is identical to that of Storms (9.31). E. LETTERS OF MARQUE: War in Europe has increased the opportunity for "legal" privateering. Draw a Letter of Marque marker at random. The first Pirate with no Attack History vs that nationality to complete the transaction may purchase that Letter of Marque from any Neutral Governor of the same nationality for an amount equal to a dr6 x 100 at the end of any "Sell Booty" Operation. Alternatively, the amount can be less if making the purchase from a Pro-Pirate Governor or Safe Haven of the same Nationality as the Letter of Marque. The purchase amount is equal to a dr6 x 50 from a Pro-Pirate Governor. If purchasing a Letter of Marque from his Safe Haven, a Pirate may deduct 50 x the dr6 from the purchase cost. The Pirate need not actually sell Booty to declare a "Sell Booty" Operation to bribe a Governor or obtain a Letter of Marque. After seeing the cost, a Pirate may decline the purchase and try to roll a better deal in a later turn. A Pirate may not possess more than one Letter of Marque, although he may return the one he has to its draw cup in order to get a different one. The opportunity to gain a Letter of Marque expires if Peace is declared (Event M). E1 Historically, Letters of Marque were documents provided by a government enabling one to prey on the shipping of another country legally - at least as far as the first country was concerned. As long as a Pirate was reasonably careful with whom he did business, such a document could be his ticket back to respectable society. A Pirate's Letter of Marque is forfeit if he attacks that nationality. EXAMPLE: A Pirate captured by a British KC/Warship (13.63) may use a British Letter of Marque to either retire or resume his Privateer career. At the moment of capture, he makes a dr6 on the Double Cross Table (18.2) to determine his fate. E2 A Pirate with a Letter of Marque may upgrade all Ports of that nationality by one level; i.e., he may treat all Ports of that nationality as a Safe Haven if they have a Pro-Pirate Governor, or as having a Pro-Pirate Governor if they are neutral, or as if they have a Neutral Governor if they have an Anti-Pirate Governor. A KC may not enter any non-British port whose nationality is currently backing a Letter of Marque. If already in such a Port when the Letter of Marque is declared available, he is Ousted like a Pirate (13.5). F. CREW UNREST: The player who drew the Random Event card may choose any Pirate in play to undergo a Mutiny Check (12.1). G. NATIVE UPRISINGS: The Port containing the Pirate with the most Notoriety (among all Pirates currently in Port) Ousts all Pirates. They may not return before landing at another Port. If a Pirate is Careening his vessel, he is eliminated instead. Any Pro-Pirate Governor therein is removed from play. If the port is Neutral, it must draw a Governor - retaining only an Anti-Pirate Governor and removing a Pro-Pirate Governor. Any Safe have status and stashed Net Worth there is forfeit. If no Port currently contains a Pirate, one Neutral or Pro-Pirate Port determined at random must replace its current Governor as per above. Pirates careening in a non-Port hex are not affected. H. EUROPEAN UNREST: Growing war clouds back home require the return of all KC to their draw cup. All KC Wounds/damage are repaired if they re-enter the game. I. PLACE A GOVERNOR: One new Governor is drawn at random and placed faceup based on a Dr66. If the Port selected already has a Governor, remove him; Anti-Pirate Governors returning to the Governor cup, and Pro-Pirate Governors removed from the game. If the Port selected has been destroyed or is a Pirate Haven, roll again to determine a different placement Port. J. HULL DAMAGE: All ships (both Pirate and KC) of the drawing player suffer one point of hull damage which moves their Speed damage marker one space to the right on their Damage Tracks. K. KING'S COMMISSIONER (KC): The drawing player automatically activates a KC (13.22) if he has less than two in play, or takes a KC Operation with a current KC instead. If within his Speed rating of a Transit Box Arrow hex, the KC may enter that Transit Box without stopping on the Arrow hex or awaiting another Random Event in an exception to 8.6. L. KING'S PARDON: Draw a Letter of Marque at random. All Pirates save one specified by the drawing player may automatically retire or receive a Letter of Marque from that nation for free by anchoring in any Port of that nationality (regardless of his Nation Attack history) before the next Random Event is drawn. In so doing, the Pirate may remove any previous attack history vs that Nationality. Otherwise there is no effect. M. PEACE DECLARED: All Letters of Marque are revoked. All Pirates regain any previously expended Cunning. 18. RETIREMENT 18.1 OVERVIEW: In order to safeguard his Net Worth, a Pirate must retire. If killed, all of his past successes mean nothing. A Pirate may retire as a result of Mutiny (12.32), though a King's Pardon (17L), voluntarily (18.3), or by presentation of his Letter of Marque after capture (13.63). A retired Pirate can win even if an opposing Pirate gains more Net Worth provided that opposing Pirate is killed before he can retire or the game ends. 18.2 DOUBLE CROSS: A Pirate attempting to retire by Letter of Marque when captured in battle, forfeits all Booty not converted into Net Worth. Any Net Worth not stashed in his Safe Haven is also at risk and he must make a dr6 on the Double Cross Table to determine the outcome. DOUBLE CROSS TABLE dr6 Result 3-6 Papers in order; insufficient evidence to detain. Pirate may continue 2 Detained for trial. Pirate must pay 10% of his Net Worth x DR12 and retire. A DR12 of "11" or "12" results in death by hanging. 1 Death by hanging 18.3 VOLUNTARY RETIREMENT: A Pirate may attempt to retire voluntarily with a Retirement Operation while in his Safe Haven, or any Port with a Pro-Pirate Governor. To retire, he must make a Dr66 <= his Net Worth in hundreds of Doubloons. If he rolls > his Net Worth, his mates are reluctant to lose their leader and force him to continue. If he fails a retirement attempt, he may not try again until he has increased his Net Worth to the next 100 Doubloon multiple. 19. DUELS 19.1 OVERVIEW: Pirates will fight one another to avenge some slight, because of too much grog or not enough, too few women, or just plain orneriness. Each Pirate has two "Duel" ratings: Attack and Defense, plus an Endurance rating, all of which are used to resolve Duels. 19.2 CHALLENGES: Dueling occurs when one Pirate challenges another due to a broken alliance or D&R (9.81). Duels occur only between Pirates in the same Port or aboard a shared prize (20.4). 19.3 RESOLUTION: The challenging Pirate starts as the Attacker; the challenger, the Defender. The Attacker adds his Attack value to a dr6 and compares the total to the Defender's Defense value and a dr6. If the Defender's total >= the Attacker's, the Attacker loses one Endurance. If the Attacker's total exceeds the Defender's total, the Defense loses one Endurance for each point by which his total has been exceeded. If both Pirates survive that outcome, the challenger becomes the Attacker, and the challenger becomes the Defender and they each make a dr6 to add to their respective ratings and compare the totals again to determine the outcome. This constitutes one round. The two continue to exchange roles/rolls until one is killed or Backs Off (19.4). 19.31 ENDURANCE: All Duel results are expressed in loss of Endurance Points by the affected Pirate. These are subtracted from the total available on the Pirate's Ship Log. The first Pirate to exceed his Endurance Point total (whether on Attack or Defense) is killed. Endurance Points affect only dueling and are immediately recovered in full (save for those lost due to injury) at the end of a duel. 19.32 NOTORIETY: The winner of a duel gains Notoriety equal to his opponent's Duel and Endurance ratings plus a two point gain on the Crew Unrest Track in addition to the pleasure of seeing his rival's innards spread all over a tavern floor. 19.33 WOUNDS: Whenever the Attacker's total exceeds the Defender's total by three or more, the Defender is wounded. A Wound requires that the Defender draw an Action card to determine the nature of the wound (13.71) and lowers his Attack and Defense Duel ratings by one, but the Duel continues, unless one of the participants Backs Off at the end of a round. 19.4 BACKING OFF: After each round, either Pirate may "Back Off" and end the duel. In doing so, he loses face before his crew and suffers a -3 change on the Crew Status Track. His opponent is credited with winning the duel and gains two places on the Crew Unrest Track plus Notoriety equal to his opponent's Duel and Endurance ratings. 20. ALLIANCES 20.1 OVERVIEW: Although most Pirates sailed individually, there were instances when they would form alliances under such flamboyant names as "Brethren of the Coast". Such partnerships operated under "Articles", or contracts, which they treated as legally binding - and enforced with swordplay. These alliances rarely lasted; usually one of the partners felt he was getting the short end of the financial stick, taking most of the risk, or the like. The Alliance rules can be used only in three- or four-player games. 20.2 TERMS OF ALLIANCE: Any two (never more) Pirates belonging to different players may form an Alliance during either player's turn by announcing it provided they are anchored in the same Port. Forming an Alliance does not require an Operation, it is simply stated to have occurred. The allied players may agree on anything that does not violate or alter the rules except as noted below. Alliances may be broken at any time and for any reason. 20.3 SEARCH: If two allied Pirates are at sea in the same hex/Transit Box during a Search, the drawing player may draw two Search cards. However, a "Storm" result is valid only on the first card drawn (thereby leaving the chances of encountering a Storm unchanged). 20.4 MERCHANT PRIZES: If two allied Pirates are at sea in the same hex/Transit Box when attacking a Merchant (9.61), deduct two from the Capture DR12. Although only one Pirate is conducting the Operation, both are considered to have captured the Merchant and boarded her (if successful) and both suffer any damage inflicted by the Merchant. If there is a Hostage, it is up to the Operation player to decide who gets him. Indeed, the player who rolled for the Operation decides what is to happen. If he wishes to ignore the Articles, take more than his share of the cargo, kill the Hostage, or whatever, his choice rules unless he is challenged and beaten in a duel (in which case the winner decides). The Notoriety gained from the seizure is determined for both Pirates separately according to his own Cruelty rating and eventual sale of booty. 20.5 MUTUAL DEFENSE: If both Pirates are at sea in the same hex/Transit Box when attacked, the non-attacked Pirate may choose to join in or not. If he helps his ally, the Pirate may make an additional Combat DR12 and use the highest to resolve the battle. Combat results would then apply to both Pirates equally; i.e., a Combat difference of -1 would result in one damage point for each Pirate. 20.6 PORT ATTACKS: Two allied Pirates may combine to attack a Port if both are present in the Port at the instant of attack. In such a case they combine both Ship Combat Strengths plus the Ability rating of only the Operating Captain. Any anti-Pirate results and Notoriety gains apply to each equally (although each Pirate rolls/draws for possible injury separately). Splitting the Booty is up to the Operating Pirate. 21. BARTER 21.1 OVERVIEW: Pirates may sell or trade their Booty, Hostages and any portion of their Net Worth to Pirates of other players at any time they end a turn in the same Port. No Operation is necessary. They may even trade Ships for other considerations, but cannot sell them outright without receiving a ship in return. 22. CUNNING 22.1 OVERVIEW: A Pirate's Cunning rating is the number of times during a game that Pirate may reroll die/dice rolls to improve his situation. However, once a Pirate uses a Cunning Point he may not expend another until a different player's Pirate uses a Cunning Point. The whit Cunning marker is kept on the Ship Log of the Pirate who last used a Cunning Point. The amount of Cunning remaining is recorded on the Pirate's Ship Log by reducing the number marker in the Cunning Box of the Pirate's Ship Log accordingly. 22.2 USES: Cunning can be used to reroll any resolution requiring a die/dice roll except those dealing with Storms, illness, Random Placements or Events. Rerolls are declared after seeing any relevant die/dice rolls and also force any opposing die/dice rolls to be remade. If the player opts for a reroll, he must use it. He cannot opt to use the first rejected roll instead. 22.3 KING'S PEACE: All Pirates regain any Cunning used thus far whenever a Peace Declaration Random Event occurs (17M). 23. SOLITAIRE 23.1 OVERVIEW: In the solitaire version, the player has but one Pirate: the fictional Captain Blood. He gets the first turn and becomes "Player #1". His "opponents" are two "dummy" players who are each entitled to eventually draw three Pirates. The player wins if Captain Blood reaches 100 Notoriety or has more Net Worth at game end than any opposing Pirate - either retired or currently active. Otherwise he loses. Should Blood retire while Pirates of both dummy players are still active, the player continues to play using his turns solely for his KC to track down the remaining Pirates before they can surpass Blood's Net Worth or reach 100 Notoriety. The game ends when Blood is killed, any Pirate reaches 100 Notoriety, or all three Pirates of either dummy have died/retired. A dummy can have only one Pirate active at a time. Whenever a dummy gets a turn he must activate a new Pirate if he has none in play. Otherwise, the game plays as a normal three-player game except that only Captain Blood has complete freedom of choice over his operations. Only the dummies are restricted by the following rules: 23.2 WARSHIPS: The nationality and ratings of Warships are not revealed until they are actually in position to attack, Blockade, or Oust a Pirate. An unknown Warship has Movement Points equal to a dr6 when being moved and cannot be challenged. Once revealed by a Blockade, Ouster, or Intercept, Warships remain face up and move according to their printed Movement allowance. A Warship within one turn's movement of a Pirate will attempt to Intercept it, unless it belongs to the moving player. If within one turn's movement of both Blood and another Pirate, a Warship controlled by a dummy will always attempt to Intercept Blood. 23.3 DUMMY PIRATE/KC TURNS: If he has both a Pirate and a KC in play, a dummy will always take a Pirate Operation unless the Action Line lists "KC". A dummy with no KC in play will petition the Crown for one whenever he draws a "KC" Action Line if Blood has a Notoriety >= 11. EXCEPTION: A Pirate will always move during its turn if in the same hex with a KC/Warship. 23.4 DUMMY KC OPERATIONS: When activated, a KC is always placed in the Transit Box leading to Blood's currently-occupied Ocean. KC always move towards Blood to the full extent of their movement allowance to Intercept him as long as he remains in the same ocean. A KC will attempt to follow Blood to a new Ocean. However, if a KC is damaged, he will return to the closest Neutral/Anti-Pirate Port for a Refit if he makes a dr6 <= the amount of his Combat damage. A KC will likewise Careen if in a Coastal hex and his speed has been reduced from its maximum unless within one turn's movement of Blood. A KC will not move to attack a Dummy Pirate. A sick KC will always return to the closest available Port for a Recover operation. 23.41 CLOSEST PORT: Pirates/KC returning to the "closest port" for Refit, Recover, or Sell Booty Operations determine the closest Port by ignoring all Ports they cannot enter (such as a KC to a Pro-Pirate Port) and modifying the distance to the others as follows: REFIT RECOVER SELL BOOTY Pro-Pirate P x 2; KC - P x 1 x 2 Anti-Pirate P -; KC x 1 KC x 1 - Neutral P x 3; KC x 2 x 1 x 3 Pirate Haven P x 1; KC - P x 1 x 4 Safe Haven P x 1; KC - x 1 x 1 23.5 DUMMY PIRATE PATROL OPERATIONS: During his turn, a Pirate at full strength with an empty Hold must chase a Merchant if within six hexes of one unless sick or damaged or if either the Pirate or the Merchant are in the same hex/Transit-Box with a KC/Warship. Otherwise, if at full strength and not in a hex with a Merchant at the end of his move and if he has any empty Holds, a Pirate will Search provided he can meet the requirements of 9.3. A Pirate will attack a Merchant in the same hex unless his Attack Number is < 2. If sick, a Pirate will always return to the closest available Port for a Recover Operation. A damaged Pirate will return to the closest available Port for a Refit once his Movement dr6 or his Attack Number is <= the amount of his damage. A Pirate will never voluntarily enter a KC/Warship hex unless running a Blockade and will choose another destination if the Port he is supposed to enter is currently occupied by a KC/Warship. A Pirate will stop to careen his vessel if currently in a coastal hex and not within two turns' movement of a KC/Warship, if the movement dr6 is < his Speed damage. 23.51 PORT ATTACKS: A Pirate may attack a Port only after gaining useful information improving his odds (9.73). A Pirate will always torture a Hostage for information on the turn of his capture. If he gains information on a Port of a nationality for which he has an Attack history, he will head directly for that port (without searching or attacking Merchants) to raid it once his holds are empty if his Combat and Ability strengths at least equal the Port's defense. If successful, he will sack the port only if he has at least five Combat factors remaining and the raid yielded a booty of < 300 per die. Otherwise he will continue his Patrol Operations. 23.52 SELLING BOOTY: A Pirate will return to the closest Port whenever his Holds are full, to sell his Booty and ransom his Hostages. If without a Safe Haven, he will purchase one if possible. 23.53 REFIT: A Pirate in Port will not voluntarily leave until his ship is fully repaired and free of sickness. 23.54 VOLUNTARY RETIREMENT: A Pirate who starts his turn in a Safe Haven or a Pro-Pirate Port with no Booty to sell, will attempt to retire if he has at least 1100 Doubloons in Net Worth and that amount is more than that held by Blood or any other currently retired Pirate. 23.55 NEW SHIPS: A Pirate will always attempt to upgrade to a larger ship if possible (9.64) and will trade ships of the same size if in doing so he will get one in better shape. 23.6 D&R: A dummy Pirate always takes Mandatory D&R and opts for D&R at every opportunity if his Crew Unrest is <= 6 unless in the same hex/Transit-Box with a Warship/KC. 23.7 FAIR PLAY: For a challenging game, the solitaire player should wear several hats; i.e., he should suspend his loyalty to Captain Blood during the dummy moves and try to make moves which are to their best advantage - as if those forces were his own. All of the above rules are only guidelines for courses of action and can be freely broken by the player in acting in the best interests of the dummy. Only in this way can a truly challenging scenario be provided for Captain Blood to best. CREDITS RESEARCH & DESIGN: Richard Berg GAME DEVELOPMENT: Don Greenwood & Jim Eliason COVER ART: George Parrish Jr. MAPBOARD: Charles Kibler COMPONENT ART: Dave Dobyski TYPESETTING: Colonial Composition PREP DEPT. COORDINATOR: Lou Velenovsky PRINTING: Monarch Services PLAYTESTING: Jim Anderson, Richard Edwars, Carl Kusch, Mike Sigler, Andrew York, Pete Thompson, Howard Dawson, Cliff Odell QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: SUGGESTION: The game plays much faster with a duplicate set of Action cards to substitute pre-shuffled for the deck in use whenever a Random Event is drawn. This avoids the wait while the deck is reshuffled. Action decks can be purchased separately from TAHGC for $6 plus usual postage charges. 2.6/5.2 Is there a limit to the number of pirate ship types available or can we make our own to augment those supplied with the game? A. The limit is intentional. 4.22 After Voluntary Retirement, does a Pirate have to travel safely to his Safe Haven to collect his stash? A. No. 6.21 Is it permissable to activate a Pirate directly atop a Merchant so as to be able to attack the Merchant in a subsequent turn? A. Yes - an activation which does not occur atop a Merchant is a rarity, although often the Merchants will "move" away before the new Pirate can attack - much to the glee of his opponents. 6.34 Dies a newly drawn Warship get to move on the turn it is draw? Can a player move more than one Warship if they are already present? A. No. Yes. 8.51 Can a Pirate choose to be intercepted by a weak KC/Warship to gain notoriety and forego the interception die roll? A. No. 8.52 Does the statement "otherwise ignored" imply that if there is an automatic intercept, there will be no random event draw? A. Yes, however, the effects of blockades (14.3), Scurvy (17C), and Transit Box (8.6) apply normally. 8.6 Is a ship required to stop on the lines between Transit Boxes so it takes twice as many full moves as Transit Boxes to go from one ocean to another? A. No. 8.6 Is Transit Box 1 considered part of the North Atlantic? A. Yes. See Transit Box 2. 8.7 Can a ship enter a Port and leave it in the same turn? A. No. A KC/Warship must anchor to oust a Pirate and, in so doing, ends its turn. 8.7 Do Warships pay a Movement Point to enter a Port of their own nationality? A. Yes. Anchored Warships must be flipped to leave their Nationality side face-up. 9.21 An unflagged Warship's nationality is determined at the start of the turn, and can change from turn to turn. 9.3 Can a Pirate search after moving a number of hexes equal to his full movement allowance even if he ends his turn in the same hex with a Merchant? A. Yes. Note that a Pirate can't search on the turn that he leaves Port because if costs one MP to hoist anchor. 9.62 Does a failed attack on a Merchant create an Attack History vs that Prize's nationality? A. No. 9.8 Is a Pirate with a schooner engaged in D&R still able to attempt Evasion, and if so does he subtract two from his Evasion die roll? A. Yes. Yes. 9.8 May D&R be declared after a successful raid or sack of a Port? A. No. 9.8 Does D&R affect a pirate's Duel ratings? A. No. 9.81 If a pirate enters port with an opposing pirate already under D&R, is a duel required? A. Yes. Dueling is required of every Pirate in the same location until the D&R marker is removed or that Pirate has been in a duel. If there is no other Pirate in that location, no duel occurs. 10.21 Can a pirate decline the cost of a bribe after determining the amount? A. Yes, but not after determining the outcome of a Governor draw. He may repeat the bribe attempt die roll in subsequent turns without leaving the Port or actually selling Booty. 10.21/10.4 Can a pirate buy and retain more than one safe haven? A. Yes. 10.221/10.3 Can a pirate declare D&R after both a hostage ransom and a separate sale of cargo operation? A. Yes, but D&R would have to be removed between those two separate operations, thus requiring a minimum of three turns. 10.4/18.3 Does a pirate need to retire in his Safe Haven to claim the Net Worth he has stashed there? A. No. 11.24 If a Pirate sinks a KC, does he also get +5 Notoriety for escaping battle? A. No. 11.24/12.1 What constitutes an escape from battle? A. The pirate or attacker must actually exit the same hex/Transit Box in which the battle took place. That Pirate is immune to Mutiny attempts while in his opponent's hex/Transit Box. Likewise, a Pirate which has just successfully raided a Port is immune from Mutiny until his next turn after the raid - allowing him the opportunity to sack the Port and thereby avoid a possible mutiny. 13.6 May a KC attempt to intercept a Pirate if the KC starts its turn in Port and the Pirate is at sea in the same hex? A. No. They must both be at sea in the same hex at the start of a turn, or the Pirate must enter the KC's hex for the KC to attempt interception. 13.61 Does winning a combat round against a warship always cost one point of damage the same as it does vs a KC? A. No - neither side suffers damage in that round. 13.713 If a Pirate loses an arm and a leg, is he considered still alive for game purposes? A. Yes. 13.715 Does Recovery gain back Crew Unrest lost due to injury to the Pirate Captain? A. Yes, but not for Scurvy. 13.715 Are Combat/Speed ratings lost due to a Pirate Captain's injury restored upon his Recovery without benefit and Refit and Careen? A. Yes. 14.31 If a KC enters a Pirate Haven as part of an Anti-Pirate Campaign when the port contains no Pirates, is a Governor still drawn in an attempt to transform the Pirate Haven into a British port? A. No. A KC is not allowed to enter an unoccupied Pirate Haven whether alone or as part of an Anti-Pirate Campaign. 15.2/9.62 Does a Port's Pro-Pirate status change as a result of being attacked by a Pirate? A. No. Of course, the attacking Pirate would gain an Attack History against that nationality if it didn't already have one. 15.5 What constitutes a Warship "entering" a port? A. Anchoring. A blockade does not enter a port. 15.5 What happens to a Pirate which raids a port, is subsequently blockaded inside it, and then sacks that port? A. A sacked port ceases to exist. The Pirate is then automatically at sea in the hex with the blockaders at the end of his turn and subject to interception. 16.4 Can a pirate/KC declare sequential careens removing a die roll's worth of damage in each operation before removing the careen? A. Yes. 16.4 Does a ship have to drop anchor during a movement operation before being able to careen? A. No. Careening is a separate operation from movement; the act of anchoring or hoisting anchor is considered part of the "Careen Ship" or "Remove Careen" operation. 17C1 If a successful Mutiny occurs on a ship afflicted with Scurvy, does the new Pirate Captain have to roll for Personal Injury upon taking over the Scurvy-laden ship? A. No. He is assumed healthy until the next Random Event whereupon he must take his chances like everyone else. 17C1 Is on die roll made to determine injury to both the Captain and any hostages, or is one die roll made to determine the Captain's status, and another made to determine the fate of any hostages? A. The former. 17E If a pirate buys a Letter of Marque from a Pro Pirate Governor which is also his Safe Haven, what is the cost? A. It is free. 18.3 Once a Pirate retires, is his stashed Net Worth still vulnerable to Sacking, Earthquakes, or Native Uprisings? A. No. 21. Can a Pirate trade information obtained from a hostage to another player's Pirate? A. Yes, but trading is not allowed between Pirates of the same player. 22.2 Can a player use his Cunning to reroll his battle dice roll while keeping his opponent's battle dice roll or vice versa? A. No. If either battle dice roll is rerolled, they both must be. 22.2 Can cunning be used to reroll a purchase of a Letter of Marque (17E1)? A. No. This is still considered part of a random event and not subject to cunning. BIBLIOGRAPHY/SOURCES There are a remarkable number of books on the subject of piracy. The ones listed below were our main sources of information. The Ur-Pirate book is a massive work entitled, A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious Pyrates; Vols. I and II, written by a certain Captain Charles Johnson (who was, in reality, the novelist, Daniel Defoe). The language is stilted and ponderous (it was written in 1725), but the information is marvelous. And the book appears to have been written with the sort of gruesome glee one usually associates with Clive Barker novels. The most informative - as well as most used - general source was The Pirates, a Time-Life book in "The Seafarers" series, written by Douglas Botting (1978). If you are at all interested in this subject do not fail to try to dig up a copy of this book. The text is well written, and the graphics (both old and new) are wonderful. Extremely valuable in development and rewrite was Robert Ritchie's Captain Kidd and the War Against the Pirates (Harvard University Press, 1986). While focusing on Kidd, it still is a mine of information about piracy and its practices. It is quite well written. Bellerophon Books puts out a series of "coloring" books whose wealth of information and detail belies their premise. The Pirates (edited by Harry Knill and wonderfully illustrated by Gregory Irons) is a sort of brief encyclopedia of Who's-Who In Piracy. The text is pure Defoe. For some really classy - and classic - pirate art we suggest you take a look at Howard Pyle's Book of Pirates (Harper, and I forgot the year but it's turn of the century). Pyle is a marvelously evocative artist, and these are the paintings that have shaped our mental portraits of what pirates looked like for the last 100 years. For sheer enjoyment, as well as a fount of exceptional and accurate detail, read Rafael Sabatini's classic Captain Blood. While the Errol Flynn movie is one of the best (and pretty faithful to the book; Flynn was born to play the role), it is nowhere near as much fun as the novel. Sabatini, somewhat wrongfully, has been ignored as a writer of "pulp". However, his pirate (and other) novels are much more than that they are masterful pieces of historical fiction. His The Sea Hawk is also quite good. Pirates, Buccaneers and Gentlemen Adventurers, by E.O. Hoppe (A.S. Barnes and Co., New York, 1972) was a useful source for identifying several of the pirates. The Pyrates, by George MacDonald Fraser, of "Flashman" fame, (Alfred Knopf, New York 1984), is a witty and clever (if somewhat overlong) fictional spoof of the Golden Age of Piracy (and the movies made about it). It includes a goodly number of the pirates in the game (in various guises), including Avery, Rackham, Bonney, Blackbeard, et. al., all of whom will have you growling like Robert Newton for days on end. The book is rightfully dedicated to Lancelot Blackburn, a real pirate who eventually became Archbishop of York, proving, yet again, that it's not what you do but who you know.